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. . LIBRARY . . 

Agricultural College. 

vol LJH...5l£: 


COST^ ^ ..•— 

DATE L£ikkdL„.X.Q.i 19 L^ 

BOOK 6 13.2.M22 c 1 


3 1153 000355b2 

This book may be kept out 

and is subject to a fine of TWO 
CENTS a day thereafter. It will be 
due on the day indicated below. 

DEC n 

v t 

Eat and Be Healthy 



Portland, Oregon 



T. G. ROBISON, Printer 
Portland, Oregon. 



The purpose of this book is to lay bare to the 
everyday reader, the basic facts of human nutrition in 
understandable English, and to present the general 
conclusions drawn from these underlying facts and 
from wide experience in the dietetic treatment of dis- 
ease as briefly as possible and yet as fully as neces- 
sary to give the reader a thoro grasp of the problem of 
diet in health and disease. The questions asked by 
many patients and numerous attendants of lectures 
given by the author have been constantly borne in mind 
to the end that this book might tell the average reader 
just what he wants to know — the What, How, When, 
and Why of eating for health. No attempt has been 
made to cover the entire field of human nutrition in 
all its ramifications — to do so would take a library in 
itself and be so expensive of time, patience, energy 
and money that no one would read it, but the author 
has tried to give the reader a general view of the 
problems of human nutrition and specific rules for 
his guidance in healthfully feeding himself and his 
family, with an explanation of every rule laid down, 
and an exposition of the facts upon which it is based. 
The author will be well repaid if he succeeds in intro- 
ducing the reader to the subject of dietetics, acquaint- 
ing him with its language, and awakening within him 
the desire to pursue the subject further. For, after 
all, wrong feeding is the main factor in the causation 
of most disease and a contributing factor in practic- 
ally all, and if the terrible grist of human suffering 
could be shut off at its source it would be so much 
simpler, so much easier, so much more economical of 
human life and misery, and so much more satisfactory 
in every way than the sorry business of treating 
merely a few of the hosts made sick by this one cause. 


Treating people for the bad results of wrong eating 
when their misery could be prevented by correct eat- 
ing is so much like swatting a few flies while the 
rubbish heap which is their breeding ground remains 
neglected that it would seem ridiculous if it weren't 
so pitiful. It is hoped that the present humble volume 
will help clean up the breeding cause of at least some 
of this disease. And if the reader wishes to pursue 
the study of the subject further he is recommended 
to study carefully some of the many w r orks referred to 
in the present volume, works of which the author has 
made full use in getting out this little book. 

The author wishes to make grateful acknowledg- 
ment to Mrs. MacMickle for her invaluable practical 
criticism of the book's contents and to Mr. H. C. 
Dekker for his generous assistance in editing and 
revising the manuscript. — V. MacMickle, Portland, 




The diet question, when viewed in the light of 
present day knowledge of the chemistry of foods and 
the physiology and chemistry of nutrition, is exceed- 
ingly simple. However, without this knowledge of the 
chemistry of foods and the processes of nutrition, it 
seems an exceedingly chaotic question. I do not mean 
that we must know all about these things, tho it would 
be of great gain if we did ; but with the rules based on 
this knowledge we must be acquainted, if we are to 
avoid sickness, premature old age and premature death. 
Therefore, since it is the rules and the following of 
them that is of the most importance to us, for the bene- 
fit of those who merely want to know how to eat 
properly in order that they may attain health and 
prolonged life, and who are willing to take these rules 
on faith, I shall give the rules first. 

For those who want to know the WHY of the rules, 
I shall follow the rules with a discussion of the chemis- 
try of foods and the chemistry and physiology of nutri- 
tion in as simple and non-technical language as is 
consistent with accuracy. All who take the trouble 
of learning the reasons underlying the rules will never 
forget the rules themselves and will never have any 
doubt as to why they are following any given rule. No 
amount of conflicting dietetic claims need ever disturb 
them, for I shall not give a single rule that is not 
founded upon scientific facts, and I shall quote men 
of national and international standing in the domain 
of physiology and allied branches as authorities for the 
facts I give. 



Bear in mind that the following rules are not 
pretty pet theories, but have been arrived at, only 
after considerable personal experience and observation ; 
and, moreover, the study of world-famed authorities 
has proved them to be correct. You have to take 
neither my own statements nor those of anyone else; 
just follow these rules consistently and conscientiously 
for awhile and you will prove to your entire satisfaction 
that they are right. Of course, there are special condi- 
tions in which general rules, such as these needs must 
be, cannot be relied upon entirely, and in these cases 
your safest course lies in consulting an expert dieti- 
tian. No general rule was ever made that covered each 
particular case. 

Composition of the Body and of Foods. 

Before formulating the rules of correct eating let 
us start with some facts that are, or should be, common 

First, our bodies are aggregates of chemical com- 
pounds, made up of about fifteen or sixteen different 
chemical elements, the principal ones of which, 
together with the percentage of each, are as follows: 

Per cent 

Oxygen, about 65.00 

Hydrogen, about 10.00 

Calcium, about 2.00 

Potassium, about 0.35 

Sodium, about 0.15 

Magnesium, about .... 0.05 

Per cent 

Carbon, about 18.00 

Nitrogen, about 3.00 

Phosphorus, about 1.00 

Sulphur, about 0.25 

Chlorine, about 0.15 

Iron, about 0.004 

Iodine, fluorine and silicon are also found in very 
minute quanities. Of course, these elements make up 
a great number of different compounds in the body, 
forming the various tissues and fluids and so forth. 


Second, these "chemical substances of which the 
body is composed are very similiar to those of the foods 
which nourish it. They are made up of the same 
chemical elements, ,, says U. S. Farm Bulletin 142. It 
continues, "They are so combined as to form a great 
variety of compounds in both body and food. The most 
important kinds of compounds in the body and in foods 
are protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral matter and 

Third, the body can only get the materials from 
which it is made in the first place from foods and only 
from foods can it get the necessary materials with 
which to repair the tissues destroyed by "wear and 
tear." Not only must it have foods from which to get 
the chemical compounds to build and repair itself, but 
foods must also furnish the substances that are to be 
oxidized (burned) in the body to give it energy, either 
in the form of muscular work, or of heat, or both. To 
quote Bulletin 142 again, "The functions of these 
compounds in the foods are to build and repair the 
various tissues of the body and to supply it with heat 
and muscular energy." The same authority again says, 
"The chief uses of food, then, are two : First, to form 
the material of the body and repair its wastes, and; 
Second, to furnish muscular and other power for the 
work the body has to do and yield heat to keep the body 
warm. In forming the tissues and the fluids of the body 
the food serves for building and repair. In yielding 
power and heat it serves as fuel." 

So much for foods in general : now for the partic- 
ular kinds of compounds mentioned above as foods, 
that is, protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral matter 
and water. Right at this point we shall interest our- 
selves only with the first four mentioned; with water 
considered as a food, as well as with air, we shall deal 
quite at length later. 

PROTEINS — Protein is a name derived from the 
Greek verb meaning "to take first place" and was 


first given to a certain kind of food, a nitrogenous 
(nitrogen bearing) food, back in 1838 by Mulder 
because he believed it to be the fudamental constituent 
of tissue substances. Sherman says : "The plural form, 
proteins, is now used as a group name to cover a large 
number of different but related nitrogenous organic 
compounds which are so prominent among the consti- 
tuents of the tissues and of food that they may still 
be accorded some degree of preeminence in a study of 
the chemistry of food and nutrition. ,, Quoting the 
same author further, we learn that, "Proteins are 
essential constituents of both plant and animal cells. 
There is no known life without them. Plants build 
their own proteins from inorganic material obtained 
from the soil and air. Animals form the proteins char- 
acteristic of their own tissues, but in general they can- 
not build them up from simple inorganic substances 
such as suffice for the plants, and must depend upon 
the digestion products obtained from the proteins of 
their food." 

Proteins are tissue builders ; building and repairing 
tissues are their primary functions ; and, while in addi- 
tion they may also be burned by the body, for heat and 
energy in the absence of enough fats and carbohy- 
drates, yet neither of these latter can take the place of 
protein in building and repair work. A certain amount 
of it is absolutely necessary to our continued existence 
and health, but nothing like the amounts usually taken 
by those who can afford it is needed. Indeed, compara- 
tively little is needed and when more than sufficient for 
the body's needs is taken, it may, and often does, prove 
harmful, thus being not only financially expensive (for 
the protein foods are nearly always the dearest in 
price) , but physiologically expensive as well. The thing 
that distinguishes proteins from carbohydrates and 
fats and which make them physiologically necessary, 
while at the same time physiologically expensive when 
consumed to excess, is the element, nitrogen, which 


they contain. It is this that is found in proteins that 
is so absolutely essential to growth and repair of tissue 
and which is not found in pure fats or pure carbo- 
hydrates. Pure fats and pure carbohydrates contain 
the elements, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen; but pure 
proteins contain the elements nitrogen and sulphur in 
addition, and sometimes phosphorus also. Now sulphur 
and phosphorus may be obtained from other sources 
than proteins, but not so nitrogen, that is found in its 
only available form for human tissue building in the 
proteins. But while this nitrogen in the form in which 
it exists in proteins is absolutely necessary, any quan- 
tity in excess of the body's needs must be eliminated 
and this places unnecessary and often harmful work on 
the excretory organs, particularly the liver and 

THE PROTEIN FOODS are: The lean of all meats, 
fowl, game, and fish, including shellfish; the casein 
(or cheese-making part) of milk; cheese of all kinds; 
eggs, and dried peas, beans, and lentils, as well as 
practically all nuts except the chestnut, which is a 
carbohydrate. Of course, if we derived our supply of 
protein from only those foods classed as proteins, we 
should have to eat a considerable quantity of any one 
of them in order to get enough protein for a day's 
rations of it; but it so happens that, with the excep- 
tion of pure fats and pure sugars, we find more or 
less protein of one kind or another mixed in with our 
other foods. In fact there is enough protein in most 
of the foods we eat so that we need pay hardly any 
conscious attention to the selection of it except to see 
that we do not get too much. To be sure, there must 
be a variety of proteins in the diet, for not all proteins 
are completely adequate to furnish all the material 
necessary for human growth and repair, as some are 
lacking in certain necessary substances; nor are all 
proteins alike in their deficiencies, some being deficient 
in one substance, some in another. But where a variety 


of proteins is eaten, as is usually the case in any 
liberal diet, the deficiencies of one protein may be made 
up by another which contains in abundance the very 
substances in which the first one is lacking; and this 
need never be a problem to the liberal user of milk 
and milk products. Eggs in moderation will also pre- 
vent any protein deficiency, tho their too liberal use 
is not to be recommended, milk and the milk products, 
particularly the former, being far preferable in this 

CARBOHYDRATES are energy and heat makers, 
any excess of them over the body's energy and heat 
needs being stored in the form of fat, provided diges- 
tion and assimilation be good. So far as their purpose 
in the body is concerned they may be used interchange- 
ably with fats, tho the fats are usually much more 
expensive and somewhat more difficult of digestion. 
The carbohydrates are divided into two groups, (a) the 
SUGARS, and (b) the STARCHES. 

(A) Sugars we shall understand to mean all 
sweets, such as honey, maple syrup, molasses, corn 
syrup, glucose, maple sugar, milk sugar, malt sugar, 
and cane or beet sugar (white, brown, or whatever 
color) , as well as such sweet fruits as dates, figs, sweet 
prunes, raisins, St. John's Bread, and very ripe banan- 
as and persimmons. 

(B) Starches include sweet potatoes, white pota- 
toes, and several other varieties of starchy roots resem- 
bling sweet and Irish potatoes, grown in tropical and 
sub-tropical regions, and not much seen in the United 
States, (see Bulletin 295) ; all grains, such as wheat, 
corn, rye, oats, barley, rice and buckwheat, and all 
their products, whether bread, cake, pie-crust, buck- 
wheat cakes, or what-not ; also sago and tapioca, chest- 
nuts, unripe bananas and persimmons, as well as dried 
peas, beans, and lentils. For, altho these last (the 
Legumes) are classed as proteins, they are also very 
rich in starch. 


FATS are heat and energy makers, and, as before 
stated, can be used interchangeably with carbohy- 
drates, tho they are about two and one-half times as 
rich in fuel value as carbohydrates. Fats include body 
fats of animals, fowl, game, and fish, as well as butter 
and cream, of animal origin, and olive oil, cottonseed 
oil, peanut oil, cocoanut oil, cocoa butter, palm oil, corn 
oil, and the oils from many nuts, such as English wal- 
nuts, Brazil nuts, Italian pine nuts, and almonds, of 
vegetable origin. 

MINERAL MATTER, or the salts of lime, magnes- 
ium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, chlorine, sulphur 
and iron, go to make bone, to keep the blood alkaline 
and of proper consistency, and to help make up the 
digestive juices and other body fluids, as well as the 
substances secreted by the glands. To get some idea of 
the importance of a liberal allowance of mineral salts 
in the diet it is only necessary to know that without 
iron, for one specific instance, to enter into the com- 
position of the red corpuscles, they (the corpuscles) 
would be unable to absorb oxygen from the air as the 
blood passes thru the lungs and carry it to all parts 
of the body, yielding it up wherever needed. This 
would result in oxygen starvation. A very striking 
example to be sure, but each of the other minerals 
above mentioned is, in its way, almost, if not equally, 
as important as iron. (See full discussion of this sub- 
ject in later chapter on mineral salts). Further- 
more, it is largely these mineral salts that account for 
the freedom from constipation on the part of people 
who eat large quantities of vegetables. This used to 
be thot due to the "roughage," or indigestible fiber 
of the vegetables ; but recent experiments have proved 
that it is largely the mineral salts that are responsible 
for this much desired effect. In one experiment with 
bran, for instance, it was found that when cows were 
fed on bran from which the mineral salts had been 
washed, the cows became constipated, while the pure, 


natural bran had a decidely laxative effect, proving 
conclusively in this case the great importance of these 
mineral salts. And the fact that fruit and vegetable 
juices (apple cider, for instance) when taken, apart 
from the pulp or fiber, produce laxative effects in our 
own bodies is good proof of the laxative qualities of the 
mineral salts. 

Since there are eight of these mineral salts, which 
would be too many to keep in mind separately, and since 
at least several of them are always found together 
in the same article of food, we shall give them a group 
or family name. And further, since they are found 
in greatest profusion and purity and in most easily 
assimilated form in the vegetables and fruits, we shall 
know them hereafter as the SUCCULENT FOODS. 
This does not mean that there are none of them in other 
foods (grains, for example, contain them plentifully, 
and some minerals are found in practically all foods 
except purified fats and purified carbohydrates), but 
the Succulent Foods are far richer in them, particularly 
the alkaline mineral salts. Nor does this mean that 
the Succulent Foods contain no other nutriment, for 
there are minute quantities of fat and small quantities 
of protein in most of these foods, while many of them 
are quite rich in carbohydrates, principally in the form 
of glucose (fruit sugar) and sucrose (cane sugar, this 
substance, when found in the plants, being indentical 
with the manufactured product) ; but in an ordinary 
diet furnishing nearly enough proteins, fats, and carbo- 
hydrates, the Succulent Foods are useful principally 
for the mineral salts which they contain. Or, as U. S. 
Bulletin 295 puts it, "Perhaps one of the most import- 
ant functions of these (Succulent Foods) is to supply 
the body with mineral salts which are needed for the 
building and repair of tissue, for the proper carrying 
out of the physiological functions, and particularly to 
insure the alkalinity of the blood." In another Govern- 
ment bulletin Professor Langworthy, in speaking of 


the value of Succulent Foods in the diet, points out 
that, besides their value as mineral containers, they 
are also valuable to give bulk and variety to the diet. 
He says, 'Their value in the diet, therefore, and they 
have a decided value, lies not in any large quantity of 
nutriments, but in small quantities of special materials 
(mineral salts) which they provide and the bulk which 
they give the diet, and also in their appetizing qualities, 
their flavor and appearance, and the variety which they 
make possible." And, let me add, had he written the 
foregoing since the recent experiments and wonderful 
discoveries of that genius of nutrition, Prof. E. V. 
McCollum, he would have given at least equal import- 
ance to the "vitamins," of which more later. So you 
see that while "one of the most important functions 
of these foods is to supply the body with mineral salts," 
yet for a variety of other reasons we cannot call them 
"mineral foods," and hence we must call them by some 
other name that better describes them as a class, so 
we shall call them SUCCULENT FOODS hereafter. 

The SUCCULENT FOODS include the following: 
(a) roots, such as carrots, turnips, parsnips, kohlrabi, 
beets, Jerusalem artichokes, celeriac, salsify (oyster 
plant), black salsify, radishes, onions, garlic, and a 
number of condimental roots, which, since we do not 
believe in condiments, we shall not enumerate. Pota- 
toes and starchy roots have already been classified 
under the heading "Starches." 

(B) POTHERBS or GREENS, such as spinach, 
kale, cabbage, cabbage sprouts, Savoy cabbage, Chinese 
cabbage, collards, turnip tops, radish tops, beet tops, 
chard, mustard, Brussels sprouts, celery, the leaves of 
dasheen, dandelion, sorrel, yellow dock, pigweed, chick- 
weed, marsh marigold, purslane (pulsey ) , cactus leaves 
and stalks, poke sprouts, young milkweed shoots, ten- 
der blackberry shoots, and even tender brakes and 
ferns; and other vegetables frequently prepared and 
served similiarly to greens are asparagus, hop sprouts, 


bamboo shoots, (especially in Orient), green corn, green 
peas, green cowpeas, tender beans of different vari- 
eties, snapbeans, also okra and the tender green pods 
of cowpeas or field-peas. Still other vegetables not 
greens in the strictest sense of the term, but cooked 
and served as such and answering much the same pur- 
pose in the diet, are the flowers: cauliflower, broccoli, 
and globe or French artichoke, and such fruits as egg 
plant, green peppers, tomatoes, squash, and pumpkin. 

(C) SALAD PLANTS, including lettuce, celery, 
endive, romaine, green onions, water and garden cress, 
tender spinach, young dandelion leaves, peppergrass, 
cabbage (in fact it is almost a shame to serve cabbage 
or celery in any other style than as a raw salad at any 
time, unless it is so tough or wilted as to need cooking) , 
chicory, and cucumbers and tomatoes, which our Gov- 
ernment considers fruit. 

(D) BLAND or NON-ACID FRUITS including 
watermelon, muskmelon, honey-dew melon, ice cream 
melon, Christmas melon, and various other kinds of 
melons, as well as canteloupes and casawbas ; also pears, 
grapes, fresh figs, huckleberries, mulberries, sweet 
apples, and fresh persimmons. 

(E) SUB-ACID FRUITS, such as cherries, plums, 
and fresh prunes, peaches, mild apples, blackberries, 
raspberries (red and black), apricots, nectarines, and 
tomatoes (U. S. Bulletin 293). 

(F) ACID FRUITS include limes, lemons, grape- 
fruit, oranges, pineapples, loganberries, cranberries, 
strawberries, sour apples, currants, gooseberries, pom- 
egranates, rhubarb stalks, and in fact all fruits having 
a distinctly sour taste in their natural, unseasoned 

See Insert for Summary of Food Classification. 





i Cheese (including casein of milk) 

( Lean meats, fish, fowl, game, etc. 

VEGETABLE < Dried Deans > lentils, peas 
( Nuts (except chestnuts) 

( Bananas (very ripe), beet sugar, cane sugar (brown, white or 
) other color), corn syrup, dates, figs, glucose, honey, malt sugar, 
\ maple sugar, maple syrup, milk sugar, molasses, persimmons 
f (very ripe), prunes (sweet), raisins, St. John's bread. 





Bananas (unripe), barley, beans, cereal grain, flours, chestnuts, 
corn, lentils, oats, persimmons (unripe), peas, potatoes (white 
and sweet), rice, rye, sago, tapioca, tropical starch-bearing 
roots, wheat. 

Animal body fats, lard, etc. 



( Co 
] (a 
( oli 

Cocoa butter, cocoanut oil, corn oil, cotton seed oil, nut oils 
(almonds, Brazil nuts, English walnuts, Italian pine nuts, etc.), 
olive oil, palm oil, peanut oil. 










Beets, black salsify, carrots, celeriac, garlic, kohlrabi, onions, 
parsnips, radishes, salsify (oyster plant), turnips. 

Artichoke (French globe), asparagus, beans (green), beet tops, 
broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage (all kinds), cauliflower, 
celery, chard, chickweed, collards (all kinds), corn (green), dan- 
delion, dasheen leaves, dock (yellow), kale, marsh marigold, 
mustard, okra, peas (green), peppers (green), pigweed, poke 
sprouts, pumpkin, purslane (pusley), radish tops, sorrel, spinach, 
sprouts and shoots (various kinds), squash, tomatoes, turnip 

i Ca 

< dai 
( spi 

Cabbage, celery, chicory, cress (water and garden), cucumbers, 
dandelion, endive, lettuce, onions (green), peppergrass, romaine, 
spinach (tender), tomatoes. 

Apples (sweet), casawba, canteloupe, Christmas melon, figs 
(fresh), grapes, honey-dew melon, huckleberries, ice cream mel- 
ons (and melons of other varieties than those named), musk- 
melon, mulberries, pears, Persian melons, persimmons (fresh), 

Apples (mild), apricots, blackberries, cherries, nectarines, 
peaches, plums, prunes (fresh), raspberries (red and black), 

Apples (sour), cranberries, currants, gooseberries, lemons, limes, 
loganberries, oranges, pineapples, pomegranates, rhubarb stalks, 
strawberries, (all fruits distinctly sour). 



Rules of Eating. 

Having classified the different foods, each in the 
group into which it naturally falls, and told the pur- 
poses of each group, let us now proceed with the rules 
for eating them correctly. Assuming that they have 
been cooked properly, that is, in accordance with the 
principles of cooking outlined in the chapter on cook- 
ing (which see, as it is very important), remember that 
foods begin to be digested in the mouth. Judging by 
the way most people eat whom I have observed eating 
in the various restaurants, this is a discovery to 
most of you. A great many people seem to think diges- 
tion begins in the stomach, that is, if they take the 
trouble to think about it at all. So right here for the 
benefit of all and sundry I am going to lay down as the 
first rule of correct eating, a rule of transcendental 
importance: CHEW YOUR FOOD THOROLY, not 
merely until it becomes soft enough to be swallowed 
without choking you, but UNTIL YOU HAVE 
applies to everything but water. Macfadden says: 
"Chew your food ; your stomach has no teeth ! And he 
might have added: "Taste your food; your stomach 
has no taste buds!" Why do you suppose you so enjoy 
eating? Because in eating, the sense of taste is 
pleased. That the sense of taste is pleased is probably 
a wise provision on the part of Nature to see that man 
did not let his natural laziness cause his extermination 
from starvation. The sense of taste, then, is evidently 
a most useful and necessary one. So much for the 
sense of taste. Of what use is the flavor of food, and 
why do we seek to impart a flavor to it when it has 
none, or to give it a pleasing flavor when it has a 


displeasing one? To please the sense of taste! And 
where is this sense of taste found ? In the mouth. Has 
the stomach a sense of taste? No. Then food cannot 
be tasted in the stomach. You must taste food in the 
mouth where it can be tasted! After it leaves the 
mouth it is too late to taste it — except it has an echo 
(as garlic, or onions, or hamburger steak, or other 
fried foods). But you do have this sense of taste in 
your mouth and it gives you pleasure. And you also 
have foods that have flavor. Therefore, since your 
stomach has no taste buds, and your mouth has, why 
not use this pleasure-giving sense and the flavor of 
foods for all they are worth, BY TASTING ALL THE 
swallowing it. 

Yes, you do have time ! Try it and see. Suppose, 
for example, your lunch period is just long enough 
to permit you to go to the nearest restaurant or dairy 
lunch counter and wash down a couple of sandwiches 
with a cup of coffee or some other beverage and get 
back to the office. Tomorrow try this: go to your 
favorite eating place and order but ONE sandwich and 
a glass of milk or buttermilk. Then take the time you 
usually give to two sandwiches for one and chew it to 
a liquid and extract all the taste from that liquid 
before you attempt to swallow it. Also be sure and 
have your mouth empty of food when you take a 
drink of whatever you are drinking, and taste all the 
taste out of that also. This will mean that you will 
have to cut out the conversation and the reading of 
the paper and devote your whole attention to the busi- 
ness in hand. Take a tip from the dog ; even the mildest 
tempered of dogs v/ill tolerate no interference when 
eating. He wants that to be an uninterrupted period 
of pleasure, and he will fight to make it so. Only a 
few days ago the writer saw a sallow-complected, 
sunken-cheeked, hollow-eyed, line-faced individual with 


dark sacks under his eyes and a general expression of 
chronic ill-temper (that is chronic sickness) on his face, 
sitting in a restaurant eating a good-sized meal for 
a lumberjack and reading the inevitable paper. He 
spent just forty minutes at it — two minutes chewing 
and swallowing the food and thirty-eight minutes read- 
ing. And he had about him the air of a man who thinks 
he is eating slowly. Why, that meal should have 
taken an hour at least without any reading, if he had 
chewed properly. Furthermore, I doubt whether he 
could have eaten that entire meal, had he chewed it 
properly; his jaw muscles couldn't have stood it. No 
one could eat as much as some of us do and chew T it 
thoroly! Not only would our jaw T muscles tire out, 
but we would lose our appetites long before we could 
finish the meal ; we would lose our taste for food — and 
this does not take into account the matter of time which 
is limited for us all. 

Thoro mastication will result in six different 
benefits : 

First — It will give us more pleasure from eating. 

Second — We shall naturally eat much less. 

Third — We shall get much more good from what 
we do eat, and therefore, shall need less. 

Fourth — We shall immeasurably lighten the work 
of the other digestive organs and thus preserve them in 
good health, thereby benefiting the whole body and 
working a great economy in the matter of doctor bills. 

Fifth — We shall not be troubled with heavy-head- 
edness after meals, nor will we have foul breaths, 
coated tongues, nor be bothered with gas in the intes- 
tines, nor the belching of bad flavored gases after 

Sixth — We shall preserve our teeth, for the exer- 
cise thus afforded our jaws will cause an increased 
flow of blood to the jaws and teeth, which is a prime 
requisite for the health and preservation of the teeth 
as of any other part of the body. (Read Horace Fletch- 


er's, "The A. B. Z. of Our Own Nutrition." It's a 
wonderful book) . 

To sum up, then, in a few words, we shall reap 
immense physical and decided financial gains from the 
process, not to mention the happiness and joy resulting 
from these gains and the general sense of freedom 
and well-being that comes from an unbefouled diges- 
tive tract. 

Another rule that is almost, if not equally, as 
important as the foregoing rule about chewing the 
food is the rule: NEVER EAT UNLESS HUNGRY! 
Do not eat just because it is meal time. If not hungry 
at your regular mealtime, do not eat until the next 
regular mealtime that you are hungry. No matter if 
it is a week, wait ! No one ever yet died waiting for a 
normal desire for food, but hosts have cut their lives 
short by eating without normal hunger. When the 
body needs food it will make its needs known by signs 
unmistakable. To eat food when the body does not 
need it is not only a v/aste of food, but a crime against 
the body as well. No animal but man will eat when not 
hungry- Food that is not needed is very likely not to 
be digested, and whether it is or not, it is harmful. If it 
is not digested it must be excreted, and the chances 
are ninety-nine in one hundred that it will decompose 
before it can be gotten rid of. If it is digested it can 
only result in accumulation of surperfluous flesh and a 
general clogging of the body with the excess nutriment. 
If you are not hungry at the regular mealtime, the 
quickest way of getting a normal appetite is to go 
without eating — and to take open-air exercise. If this 
course is persisted in, not only will a normal hunger 
for food soon return, but the digestive organs will be 
relieved of a totally unecessary burden, the excretory 
organs will also escape much unnecessary work, and 
the whole body will benefit immensely thereby. 
Another thing, if you cannot make up your mind what 
you want to eat, you are not hungry. If you are really 


hungry you will desire plain, wholesome food ; you will 
not need fancy dishes to tempt you to eat. 

General Rules for Combining Foods. 

RULE I— PROTEINS may be eaten with any other 
foods, except concentrated STARCHES AND GRAN- 
ULATED SUGAR ; grain foods and flesh foods form a 
particularly bad combination. And granulated sugar 
and meat are worse. Two kinds of concentrated pro- 
teins should not be eaten at the same meal. Proteins 
are best eaten with the SUCCULENT FOODS. 

RULE II — MILK, tho mentioned under the pro- 
teins, can hardly be called a concentrated protein and 
hence may be eaten with starches, or with any other 
food, except — particularly in the case of one with "acid 
stomach" — acid fruits. People with normal digestion 
need have no fear of combining acid fruits and milk, 
provided only, that they have not already eaten too 
great a mixture of foods, or broken some rule here 
laid down. Nor is it advisable to drink milk at a meal 
already rich in protein, particularly of the flesh or fish 
variety, tho milk is permissable with eggs in moder- 
ation. Milk may best be eaten with CARBOHY- 

RULE III— FATS (unfried) may be eaten with 
almost anything but other foods rich in fat or oil; 
hence should not be eaten with nuts. When nuts are 
eaten at a meal no other fat is necessary at that meal. 
Fats may best be eaten with SUCCULENT FOODS. 
Fried fats, or things cooked in fried fats, are taboo, 
unfit for human consumption. 

may be eaten with any other food, except concentrated 
Starches or flesh foods, but are particularly good com- 
bined with Milk or Succulent Foods. This applies partic- 
ularly to granulated sugar, which is a highly concentra- 
ted food and should be eaten with other foods that are 


more bulky and less concentrated, as the Succulent 
Foods, and never with STARCHES. However, the 
sweet fruits may safely be eaten in moderation with 
any other food except concentrated starches. 

(b) STARCHES (concentrated) may be eaten with 
any foods other than concentrated proteins, acid fruits, 
sub-acid fruits, and sugars, particularly granulated 
sugar. Nor is it advisable to eat two or more starches 
at the same meal, as bread and potatoes ; one is enough. 

with any other kind of food (except in the case of Acid 
Fruits which may not be combined with milk, and 
both Acid and Sub-Acid Fruits which may not be eaten 
with Starches). Aside from these exceptions, how- 
ever, Succulent Foods can and should be used in com- 
bination with any other kinds of foods at a meal. Acid 
and Sub- Acid Fruits, with the exception just noted 
(that is, in combination with Milk and Starches), may 
safely be eaten with any other kind of food and are 
particularly desirable with Proteins, tho it is well to 
note here that this should except peas, beans, and 
lentils, which also contain much starch in addition 
to their protein. 

From the foregoing rules we get four "DONTS" 
which follow: 

First — DONT combine Proteins and concentrated 
Starches at the same meal ; particularly do not combine 
flesh foods and grain foods, or flesh foods and granu- 
lated sugar. 

Second — DONT combine Milk and Acid Fruits 
(if you have "acid stomach"), or milk and flesh foods 
at the same meal. 

Third — DONT eat sugar on your mush or other 
cereal (mushes aren't fit food for thinking humans, 
anyway), and avoid heavy sweets and sweet desserts 
after a meal containing much starch. 

Four — DONT combine Starches and Acid or Sub- 
Acid Fruits at the same meal. 


A Few More Dont's. 

DON'T eat two or more concentrated foods, 
whether starches, sugars or proteins at the same meal, 
and never make a meal of concentrated food exclusive- 
ly; always eat your concentrated foods with other 
less concentrated, more bulky foods, such as Roots, 
Greens and Salads. 

DON'T eat too many articles of food at one meal. 

DON'T eat pepper and other spices, or ketchup 
and other condiments. 

DONT eat sour pickles, or things pickled in vin- 
egar and spices. 

DON'T eat rich preserves, or highly seasoned 
dishes. In addition to such things being bad dietetic 
practice, who knows to what degree a food so flavored 
may be spoiled, the seasoning being used to fool a 
sense of taste that would otherwise never let such 
food get by the mouth ? Don't eat such things ! 

DON'T eat much salt; very little is plenty. 

DON'T eat much grain food. Americans gener- 
ally eat too much grain products and this practice 
alone I find to be one of the chief factors in "Acid 
Stomach," a very prevalent disease among Americans. 
This admonition holds particularly true for adults; 
growing youngsters can safely eat more grain foods 
than adults. But they must be very thoroly chewed, 
no matter by whom eaten. Eat less bread and more 
potatoes; they are much easier of digestion and will, 
if not eaten to such excess that they ferment in the 
intestines, go far toward keeping the blood alkaline. 

DON'T eat canned and preserved meats; and the 
less meat you eat of any kind the better for your 
health. Of course, you may eat moderately of meat, if 
you are normal to begin with, and continue to enjoy 
good health. BUT you may also live absolutely without 
meat and enjoy just as good health — for a lot less ex- 
pense! Other Protein foods, particularly milk and its 


products, eggs, and nuts, furnish just as desirable a 
form of Protein minus the broken down products found 
in all meat as the result of the animal's activities before 
slaughter. These products of animal katabolism 
(breaking down of tissue) cannot be eliminated as they 
are incidental to life itself, and when the animal is killed 
there is no way of getting rid of these waste products 
without destroying the meat altogether. Hence, not 
only is the Protein of milk, cheese, eggs, nuts, etc., 
more economical, it is also far more wholesome. 

DONT eat between meals; your stomach needs 
some rest; and besides you can eat more than suffi- 
cient in three meals without going to the trouble of 
overloading your system with more foods between 
times. Bad as is this eating between meals at any 
time, it is particularly bad before going to bed. Don't 
do it. If you want fruit, or ice-cream, or candy, eat 
them at meal time as part of the meal — not as an 
addition to an already heavy meal. Candy (because 
of its great sugar content) is very irritating to the 
stomach and intestines when eaten alone, especially 
if eaten in any quantity ; ice-cream, while not as irri- 
tating as candy, entails a considerable amount of work 
in digestion ; even fruit calls for considerable digestive 
work. Eating between meals is, then, not only a 
terrible economic waste, a waste of good food, but 
causes an undue and undesirable strain on the diges- 
tive organs, and sooner or later will cause very serious 
digestive ills. Don't do it! 

DONT swallow a morsel of food without first 
chewing it to a liquid and tasting all the taste out of it, 
particularly starches. (Pardon the repetition). Two 
of the worst enemies of thoro chewing are (a) eating 
soft, mushy foods, that seem already in condition to 
swallow without chewing, (b) Eating too fast, that 
is, taking one spoonful right on top of another and 
continuing the process until the meal is eaten. This is 
a very bad practice. Take a mouthful, a decent mouth- 


ful — not all you can cram into the mouth — and take no 
more until that mouthful is disposed of. If you catch 
yourself cramming it in too fast, lay down your tools 
and shove your plate away from you until you are sure 
you can control yourself and then start over. In this 
way you will gradually get so accustomed to eating 
right that you will do it automatically. 

In the foregoing rules I have spoken of concen- 
trated (much nourishment in little bulk) foods; let 
me here explain that all Carbohydrates, except potatoes 
(sweet and white) and bananas are concentrated foods, 
as are all proteins, except shellfish and milk ; so are all 
fats concentrated foods. However, there is much less 
tendency to overeat of fats than of either of the others, 
probably because fats are more expensive, weight for 
weight, than the others (proteins or carbohydrates) 
and because they are generally considered "too rich" 
to be eaten freely. Hence the rule not to combine two 
concentrated foods at the same meal would not be 
taken to exclude a moderate amount of butter, or olive 
oil, or fat meat at the same meal with either concen- 
trated starches or proteins. The reason for not serv- 
ing two or more concentrated foods at the same meal 
should be obvious to anybody. The principal reason 
is that when one has two or more concentrated foods 
on the table, one or more of these is very likely to be 
there in lieu of the more bulky, less concentrated Suc- 
culent Foods. And since one very commonly eats until 
a feeling of satisfaction, if not of actual fullness, is 
reached, the result is that one eats as much (in quan- 
tity) of each of these concentrated foods as 
would suffice for a meal by itself and the total fuel 
value thus taken in may be from three to five or six 
times what would otherwise be taken. Thus, a meal 
consisting of a half-pound of round steak, four ounces 
of bread, half an ounce of jelly, a salad, and a dish of 
tapioca, would furnish far more food or fuel value than 
a meal made up of half a pound of round steak, four 


ounces of carrots, or turnips, or even potatoes, a dish 
of spinach, a salad, and a slice of watermelon. Natur- 
ally, since we nearly all overeat, particularly the seden- 
tarily employed, the latter meal would be the far better 
choice from both a financial and a health point of view. 
If you would live economically, then, and healthfully, 
always follow this method of eating but one concentra- 
ted food at a meal, and making the bulk of the meal 
from Succulent Foods, ever having in mind the rule 
against combining acids or sub-acids with starches. 

Illustrative Menus. 

In using these menus, remember, that while they 
are absolutely correct, you also can make menus that 
are absolutely correct by simply following the rules 
already given, or, more simply still, by merely substi- 
tuting for any given food in any menu another food 
from the same group. Thus, if the protein food given 
in a menu is eggs, substitute cheese, or nuts, etc., 
If one form of starch is given, substitute another : and 
for one sweet fruit substitute another. If you want 
spinach in a menu where kale is given, simply substi- 
tute spinach, or, if you prefer carrots to beets, substi- 
tute carrots; and if celery seems better than lettuce, 
by all means replace the lettuce with celery. Thus, 
you can make an unlimited number of different menus 
from the few given below and can make them accord- 
ing to what is in season at no matter what time of 
year. Only be sure that in substituting one food for 
another you always substitute one of the same group. 
For instance never substitute eggs for potatoes, 
oranges for bananas, etc. 


Winter Menus for Business or Professional Man. 

Breakfast : 

Baked apple, with or without cream. 

One or two tablespoonfuls of shelled nuts. 

Banana — dead ripe, or baked, with cream, or diluted nut 

butter, or milk. 
Cup of Postum, or other cereal coffee, if desired. 

Luncheon : 

Bread — whole wheat, corn, rye — and butter, or baked po- 

Salad with no acid dressing; oil and salt dressing, if 

Stewed peas, corn or carrots — your choice of one of these. 

Stewed figs or canned pears. 


Why not try simply a whole wheat bread peanut butter 
sandwich and a glass of milk? It is a fine luncheon for 
a busy business man and, if properly chewed, will not 
cause dullness or sleepiness. 

Dinner : 

Soup (if desired), say celery soup, or even cream tomato 

Carrots cooked in milk (see chapter on cooking), or baked 

Cottage cheese, or other cheese. 
Salad of cabbage, celery and apples. 
Cauliflower (or broccoli). 
Cup of custard, or jello. 

Spring Menus for Business and Professional Man. 


One or two poached eggs. 
Bran muffins. 

Canned pears, or stewed prunes. 
Cereal coffee, if desired. 


Luncheon : 

Raw salad. 
Baked potato. 
Creamed onions. 
Ice cream. 

Dinner : 

Spinach, cabbage sprouts, mustard greens, choice of one of 

Raw salad. 
Fish — boiled, broiled, or baked, with tomato sauce, if 

Strawberries, cherries, or other seasoned fruit. 

Summer Menus for Business or Professional Man. 

Breakfast : 

Cherries or berries. 
Eggs, one or two poached. 

Bananas, dead ripe or baked, served with cream or dilute 
nut butter. 

Luncheon : 

Tomato, lettuce, and cucumber salad. 
Cottage cheese. 
Carrots, beets or turnips. 
Watermelon or other seasonal fruits. 

Dinner : 

Salad of grated carrots, chopped cabbage and raisins. 

Baked potato, eaten skins and all. 

Summer squash. 

Canteloupe, or other seasonal non-acid fruit. 

Glass of milk, if desired. 

Fall Menus for Business or Professional Man. 

Breakfast : 


One or two tablespoonfuls of shelled almonds. 

Dead ripe banana and cream. 

Glass of milk. 



Celery, tomato and lettuce salad. 


Portion of cheese, your favorite variety. 

Casawba, or other fruit of the melon family. 

Dinner : 

Salad of shredded cabbage, grated carrots and chopped 

ripe olives. 
Baked sweet potatoes, or white ones. 
Boiled onions. 
Pears, or grapes, or other bland fruit. 

Winter Menus for Working Man. 

Breakfast : 

Cereal — mush made of whole wheat, or other grain, thor- 
oly boiled and served with cream or milk, but no 

Dish of stewed sweet prunes, or other sweet fruit. 

Glass or two of warmed — not cooked — milk, or cup of 
cereal coffee. 

Luncheon : 

Whole wheat or other whole grain bread, peanut butter 

Glass of some kind of canned vegetable, or, 
Glass of salad. 
Some figs, or other sweet fruits, and some nuts. 


A lunch I have recommended with very gratifying results 
to quite a number of working men: one quart of sweet milk, or 
buttermilk, and some sweet fruit, and a few nuts. 


Baked fish, game, or meat. 

Creamed carrots, or baked potato. 


Salad of celery, apple, and cabbage with some raisins 

stirred in. 
Cup of custard, or jello. 


Spring Menus for Working Man, 

Breakfast : 

Rhubarb and raisins stewed together. 

One or two poached eggs. 

One or two dead ripe bananas with cream or dilute nut 

Cereal coffee. 

Luncheon : 

Whole wheat bread and butter. 

Canned vegetables (preferably home canned or dried). 
Salad of one or more raw vegetables, choice of market. 
Sweet fruits and nuts. 

Dinner : 

Parsnips or potato, baked. 


Fish or fowl. 

Raw salad. 

Fresh seasonal fruit, or canned, or dried fruit, your choice. 

Summer Menus for Working Man. 

Breakfast : 


Bananas, dead ripe, with cream. 

Poached eggs. 

Glass or two of milk or buttermilk. 

Luncheon : 

Whole wheat bread and butter and lettuce sandwiches. 
Glass of green peas. 

Fresh sweet fruit. 


Dinner : 

Beets or turnips. 
Mustard or spinach. 
Cottage cheese. 

Salad of celery, cabbage, and lettuce. 
Oatmeal cookies, or cookies made of bran and whole wheat 
and raisins. 


Fall Menus for Working Man. 

Breakfast : 

Casawba or other melon or pears. 
Bran muffins. 
Sweet fruits. 
Shelled nuts. 
Glass of milk. 

Luncheon : 

Whole wheat (or rye) bread and butter. 
Green corn on cob. 
Radishes or cucumbers. 

Dinner : 

Salad of tomatoes, cucumber and onions. 

Summer squash or egg plant. 

Game, fowl, or fish. 

Beets, turnips, or rutabagas. 

Fresh fruit. 

It will be noticed here that more of the concen- 
trated foods are allowed the working man than the 
professional or business man. This is as it should be, 
for no one would maintain that an indoor sedentary- 
worker should have as much of the energy and heat- 
makers as the hard working outdoor laborer. Profes- 
sional and business women and working women require 
about the same kind and four-fifths of the amount of 
food needed by professional and business men and 
working men respectively. 

Diet for Children. 

Children of different ages, sizes, and of different 
degrees of activity will require different amounts of 
food, tho the quality should always be of the best, that 
is, the simplest and most natural. For children under 
ten, and particularly those under five years of age, milk 


should always constitute a very fair proportion of the 
diet. Of course, for infants not yet weaned, milk either 
mother's (most preferably) or that of cows or goats, is 
the only food; for such youngsters it is absolutely 
essential. To be sure they may and should be allowed 
small quantities of fruit and vegetable juices; these 
will prevent constipation and go far toward helping 
build healthy little bodies. After weaning, however, 
milk should constitute a good share of the diet, espec- 
ially until the fifth or sixth year, or longer, gradually 
supplemented, of course, by an increasingly large allow- 
ance of succulent foods and sweet fruits, as well as 
some potato and grain foods — whole grain products, 
not devitalized white flour products. From this time 
on a child's diet should be confined to milk and its 
products, succulent foods, potatoes, whole grain foods, 
sweet fruits in abundance, eggs, legumes in moderation, 
and nuts. Regarding the use of nuts by children it 
may be here remarked that parents often complain 
that tho their children are very fond of nuts, they 
cause digestive disturbances. To this complaint I 
always answer that the same is true of grown ups when 
they eat nuts as children are usually allowed to eat 
them. That is, to eat too many in the first place and to 
chew them too little in the second place. In eating nuts 
as in eating many other foods, a good motto for either 
adults or children is: "Eat less and eat it more/' 
Remember that nuts are a very rich food and not to 
be eaten as freely as apples or other foods of low fuel 
value. Once more, then, to avoid digestive disturbances 
in either yourself or your chidren following the use of 
nuts in the dietary, eat them in small quantities and 
chew them very thoroly. It requires closer attention 
to chew nuts thoroly than is required in the case of 
almost any other food. But it can be done. And if it 
is done, they are one of the most valuable of all man's 
foods. Furthermore, if children are taught to chew 
properly from the time they first start to take nourish- 


ment other than that from the breast or bottle, they 
will have no more trouble with nuts than with any other 
food. Give children absolutely no soft foods from the 
time they begin to eat foods other than milk, and the 
problem of correct chewing, as well as the problem 
of proper formation of teeth and jaws and the problem 
of adenoids, will solve itself. Feed hard foods that the 
youngster must chew, even if he has no teeth and has 
to "gum it;" particularly should all the starchy food 
that a baby gets be hard. Liquid starchy foods, 
mushes, and pappy foods in general are responsible for 
a host of children's diseases. Feed hard foods. Those 
growing jaws and developing teeth need the exercise 
to make them grow and develop properly. 

Once more let me repeat that children are much 
better off if they get their protein from milk and its 
products, eggs, and nuts than if they are allowed 
meats. Likewise, children's sweets must be in the form 
of sweet fruits and not as candies. Never let a child 
have soda fountain concoctions; they are bad enough 
for grown-ups to ruin their stomachs and poison their 
systems with. But to let children have them is a crime. 
Therefore, if you don't want your child to reproach you 
in after years with the crime of ruining his digestion, 
as well as causing him to have numerous "children's 
diseases" and unnecessary operations for tonsils and 
adenoids, don't feed him meats and candies and cakes 
and pies, as soon as he is weaned. He will still 
have plenty of time to learn these with other vices 
when he reaches the "age of discretion." There is little 
to choose between habitual candy eating or soda water 
drinking and cigarette smoking so far as they effect 
the health; if there is, I am sure the choice lies with 
the cigarette smoking. Also, I have yet to see a single 
instance of adenoids or tonsil trouble that was not 
caused by either or all of the following : Excessive eat- 
ing of sugar and candies and drinking of soda waters ; 
excessive meat eating; excessive consumption of grain 


products ; and the mixing of starches and acids or sub- 
acids at one and the same meal. This might be said 
with almost equal force of practically every so-called 
"childrens" disease," high-priced children's specialists 
to the contrary notwithstanding. Teach your children 
to eat normally of plain, wholesome, natural foods, un- 
spoiled by high seasoning and fancy cookery ; let them 
follow their play instincts, and watch the children's 
specialist pass by on the other side. 

Preparation of Foods for the Table. 

Cooking is the application of heat to articles of 
food for the following purposes : (a) to make them more 
digestible; (b) to make them more palatable; and (c) 
incidentally to kill whatever parasitic organisms may 
be present. Certain foods, such as grains, Italian chest- 
nuts, and the legumes, including peanuts, are very hard 
of digestion when eaten raw. They can be digested, 
eaten raw, by most people, but at a tremendous expend- 
iture of energy; and under present conditions no one 
wants to spend all his energy digesting foods that could 
be digested far easier and made much more palatable 
by cooking. We need our energies for the business of 
earning enough to procure foods to eat; not merely to 
digest them. Hence, we render these and many other 
foods more readily digestible by cooking them. This 
is brought about by virtue of the fact that the cooking 
breaks down the cellulose, or woody fiber of vegetable 
foods surrounding the contained nutriment and allows 
the digestive juices to come freely into contact with 
every particle of nourishment and thus to render it 
available for absorption into the blood and assimilation 
by the tissues. Likewise, in meat the muscular fibers 
are enclosed in a tough sheath-like envelope that makes 


it very hard for the digestive juices to get at them 
and cooking breaks down this sheath and allows the 
digestive juices free access to the nutrient muscular 
fibers. Not only does cooking thus render some foods 
more easily digestible, but makes many of them far 
more palatable. Most anyone will agree that a well- 
cooked piece of meat is more appetizing than the same 
meat raw; and very few would claim raw legumes to 
be more palatable than the same foods properly cooked. 
As to the killing of parasites that may be present in 
the food, this is particularly applicable to meats. Some 
of our most disgusting diseases (fortunately not very 
common in this country, at least) come from para- 
sites taken in with raw or insufficiently cooked meat. 
If you must eat meat, then, by all means be sure it is 
properly cooked. 

Cooking, then, is an art that may be of inesti- 
mable advantage in that it renders fit for our con- 
sumption foods that would otherwise be ill adapted 
to our use by making them easier of digestion, as well 
as more palatable and more wholesome. In fact, the 
importance of the part played by cooking in the evo- 
lution of man can hardly be overestimated. If you 
would realize to what extent the mental progress of 
the race is due to cooking just try living for a few days 
on a liberal allowance of raw legumes, raw grains, and 
raw chestnuts and then try to do some good mental 
work calling for a clear head and keen thinking. 

But on the other hand, cooking is an art that has 
been much abused. There has been entirely too much 
attention paid to cooking foods so as not only to make 
them more palatable, but to give them an overstim- 
ulating appeal to the appetite thru the sense of taste 
and smell. This has led to gross overeating. Also the 
attempt to cook things tastily has led to a heavy use 
of spices and condiments which not only excite an 
abnormal desire for food and cause overeating, but are 
very irritating to the mucous lining of the whole ali- 


mentary tract and in time, play a large part in the 
production of digestive and other bodily disturbances. 
No one will eat the same quantity of plainly cooked 
wholesome foods that he will of the highly seasoned 
foods prepared by the "good cook." Try the plain cook- 
ing and see. And not only that, but one living on the 
properly prepared foods will, by virtue of not over- 
loading and not being irritated by spices and condi- 
ments, greatly increase his efficiency, both physically 
and mentally. If it is a handicap to overload the di- 
gestive organs by eating certain foods raw, it is an even 
greater handicap to dissipate all your energies dispos- 
ing of foods eaten to excess on account of being over- 
cooked and highly seasoned. 

Therefore, since cooking may be advantageous or 
disadvantageous accordingly as it is done properly or 
improperly, let us now learn how to cook properly. 
Those desirous of learning how to spoil food by im- 
proper cooking may look to the fancy cook books ; here 
we shall be concerned only with the healthful way 
of cooking, which is also the economical way. 

Methods of Cooking include boiling, stewing or 
simmering, steaming, baking, roasting, broiling, and 
frying, but frying is really not a method of cooking at 
all but a good way of spoiling otherwise good foods. 

Water is converted into steam at a temperature 
of 212 degrees Fahrenheit; the process is accompanied 
by violent agitation of the water. Foods cooked in 
water raised to this temperature, or in other liquids 
undergoing violent agitation as a result of the heat 
applied, are said to be boiled. Before water reaches 
the boiling point, at a temperature of about 180 degrees 
F., bubbles form at the bottom of the vessel and slowly 
escape upward thru the liquid, causing but a very mild 
agitation of the liquid; this is called stewing or sim- 
mering. Steaming is, as the name implies, the process 
of subjecting the food not to water itself, but to the 
steam generated by the boiling. Baking is the process 


of cooking foods by dry heat in the oven and calls for 
a considerably higher degree of temperature than is 
required in simmering or boiling. Roasting, as the 
term is now used, is really the same as baking, tho 
colloquially roasting is the term applied to oven cook- 
ing of most meats and fowl, while potatoes, beans, 
and other such foods are said to be baked. Other 
forms of baking are cooking en casserole and escal- 
loping. Broiling is the subjection of meats to the direct 
heat of fire, a process that was called roasting in days 
gone by when meats were cooked by being exposed 
to the heat of glowing coals and embers. Broiling is 
also sometimes done by putting the meat into a pan 
without grease and then cooking over a fairly hot fire, 
turning the meat frequently to prevent burning and to 
insure even cooking ; this is called pan broiling. When 
this same process is used with the addition of grease 
it is called frying, the just object of the doctor's wrath. 
And here let me state that the chief reason why frying 
is so objectionable is that the fat in which the frying 
is done is so changed by the heat that it is rendered 
indigestible, and this indigestible grease forms a coat- 
ing over all the food with which it comes in contact, 
thus rendering whatever is cooked in it inaccessable 
to the digestive juices and therefore indigestible. 

In general it may be said that in cooking veget- 
ables by boiling it is best to use as little water as will 
suffice and to serve the resulting juices with the vege- 
table itself. This prevents waste of the valuable mineral 
salts and other nutrients that would be lost if the 
vegetable were cooked in much water and then drained. 
Where desired the juice may be drained off and served 
as a drink or used in soup ; but never under any circum- 
stances throw away this juice, which is frequently 
the most valuable part of the dish. There are, however, 
two exceptions to this, viz: cauliflower and cabbage 
(including all members of the cabbage family — 
mustard, kale, brussels sprouts, etc) . On account of the 


relatively high sulphur content of these, which is liable 
to form gas in the intestines, they should be cooked 
in an open vessel with plenty of water. Cabbage may 
be boiled vigorously until tender; cauliflower is better 
simmered, as it breaks to pieces when boiled hard. No 
vegetable should be cooked longer than just enough 
to make it tender. To quote Maria Parloa in U. S. 
Farmer's Bulletin 256, Preparation of Vegetables for 
the Table: "During the cooking of all kinds of foods 
gases are developed which, if retained in the food, 
give it a strong flavor and odor, and which there is 
reason to believe, are injurious. If the food be thoroly 
ventilated while cooking, the gases will pass off in the 
steam." She also says that thoro ventilation of foods 
while cooking gives them a better flavor and renders 
them more wholesome than those that are not so venti- 
lated. Then she points out the dangers of overcooking 
as follows : "Overcooking changes and toughens the tex- 
ture of vegetables. Overcooked vegetables are infe- 
rior in appearance and flavor and often indigestible 
(that is, promotive of digestive disturbances) as well 
as unpalatable." Also, the losses due to improper cook- 
ing are appalling. For instance, to quote from U. S. 
Bulletin 43 on cooking potatoes : "(1) In order to obtain 
the highest food value, potatoes should not be peeled 
before cooking. (2) When potatoes are peeled before 
cooking, the least loss is sustained by putting them 
directly into hot water and boiling as rapidly as pos- 
sible. Even then the loss is very considerable. (3) If 
potatoes are peeled and soaked in cold water before 
boiling, the loss of nutrients is very great, especially 
of protein matter. In a bushel of potatoes the loss 
would be equivalent to a pound of sirloin steak." 

On the cooking of carrots this authority says 
that "(l)the pieces should be large rather than small; 
(2) the boiling should be rapid; (3) as little water as 
possible should be used; (4) if the water extracted 
be used as food along with the carrots, instead of being 


thrown away, the loss of 20 to 30 per cent, or even 
more, of the total food value may be prevented." 

On the cooking of cabbage he says that unless the 
water in which cabbage is cooked is also used "the 
loss is large," amounting to one third to one half of the 
total nutrients. But we have already seen that the 
water in which cabbage is cooked is liable to cause 
intestinal gas on account of the large amounts of 
sulphur broken down in the process of boiling. It is 
this, together with overcooking and faulty cooking in 
general, that has led so many people to declare that 
cooked cabbage is indigestible. Obviously, then, there 
are such difficulties in the way of cooking cabbage so 
as not to waste it, while at the same time not render- 
ing it indigestible, that it is far better to eat it 
uncooked. It is one of our best salad plants and why 
people insist on rendering it indigestible and bad-smell- 
ing by cooking has always been a mystery to me. 
Never cook cabbage when it can be eaten raw. It is 
more nourishing and easier to digest raw. If it is old 
and tough, no longer crisp, then cooking is permissible. 
However, even old, tough, wilted cabbage may be made 
quite crisp by soaking the head in cold water, or wrap- 
ping in a cloth wrung from cold water and allowing to 
stand for a few hours. This applies to all salad plants. 

Steaming is even a better w r ay of cooking veget- 
ables than boiling them, as only about one third of 
the amount of loss takes place in steaming that takes 
place in boiling. Steam cooking renders most foods 
very easy of digestion. A good steam cooker is rather 
expensive to buy, but will soon pay for itself in smaller 
fuel bills, saved labor, and prevention of food wastes. 
Prepare the vegetables, peeling if necessary, and put 
into steamer (preferably in individual dishes) and allow 
to remain until tender. It is advisable with most veg- 
etables to put just a little water in the bottom of the 
cooking vessel in which the vegetables are steamed; 
this should be served with the portion of the vegetable, 


drunk as a beverage, or used in soup, as recommended 
in discussing boiling of vegetables. 

Many vegetables are delicious cooked in the oven, 
baked either en casserole or escalloped, and when possi- 
ble they should be so cooked. Potatoes, either white or 
sweet, are better baked than cooked in any other way. 
When cooked this way, at least some of the skin should 
always be eaten along with the potato; before pota- 
toes become very old, that is, before too late in the 
season, the entire skin may be eaten and enjoyed. And 
in parts where succulent vegetables are scarce it is 
positively imperative that the skins should be eaten 
to give the system enough alkaline mineral salts to 
maintain the alkalinity of the blood and to prevent 
scurvy and other diseases springing from acidosis, or 
"acid blood." And this, even tho it may be late in the 
season and the skins tough and leathery; in fact, it 
is at this season that it may be necessary to eat skins 
and all, for it is then that succulent foods are most 
liable to be unobtainable in many parts of the country 
and the need for the alkaline ash of the potatoes great- 
est. Spinach and other greens are very fine baked en 
casserole, as are also carrots and other roots. Every- 
one appreciates the value of properly baked beans ; and 
escalloped potatoes are not without their virtue as 
a change from the other methods of cooking them. 

The foregoing methods of cooking may be applied 
to all members of the respective classes of foods. Thus, 
beets, turnips, parsnips, and kohlrabi, etc., are best 
cooked after the manner of carrots. All greens of no 
matter what variety, should be cooked as above 
described, that is, with as little water as possible and 
the juice, as well as the vegetable, eaten. 

However, there is one particularly tasty and 
healthful way of cooking carrots that I wish to mention 
in passing. Slice the carrots in thin, tho not too thin, 
circular slices and plunge into boiling milk and allow 
to boil until tender, which should take twenty-five to 


forty minutes, and then season and serve, serving a 
liberal portion of the juice with each portion of the 
carrots. Salt and a little butter are all the seasoning 
required to make this the most delicious dish imagin- 
able. Care must be observed, tho, to prevent boiling 
over or burning; this can be accomplished by stirring 
occasionally with a long handled spoon. Onions may 
be cooked the same way, as may other roots, and you 
will find them far tastier and much more nourishing 
than if cooked in the conventional manner, that is, 
cooking until nearly done in water and then draining 
and finishing in milk, which is objectionable because 
of loss of mineral salts and flavor. 

Do not season foods until just about done, or, 
better still, let each person season his own food at the 
table. Succulent vegetables when cooked may be sea- 
soned with a little salt, or with salt and any of the 
following: butter, olive oil, peanut oil, cotton-seed oil, 
"salad oily" or, with these alone without the salt. 
Lemon juice may be used on greens occasionally, when 
starches are not eaten at the same meal. Never use 
pepper, mustard, ketchup, chili sauce, sour pickles, etc., 
There is no need for them and no excuse for their use. 
In making soups, cut vegetables into small pieces, as 
this permits of more thoro extraction of the nutri- 
ment and flavor and consequently makes a richer, bet- 
ter flavored soup. If meat is to be used in the soup, 
it is better to cut it into pieces, place into plain cold 
water, and allow to come to a simmer and simmer until 
the vegetables, stewed in a separate vessel, are done, 
and then mix the two together just before serving. 
Not cooking the two together is especially desirable 
where the meat contains fat and there are potatoes 
or other starches among the vegetables, for in this 
case the fat is likely to coat the particles of starch 
rendering it almost impossible for the saliva to act 
on the starches, and thus delay starch digestion and 
bring on fermentation. This is particularly true for 


those of weak starch digestion; people who are 
troubled with inability to manage starches well and in 
whom starches are liable to ferment should never cook 
fats and starches together, not even boiling them to- 
gether, let alone frying starches in fat. Remember 
that frying fat renders it indigestible and hence makes 
everything it comes into contact with inaccessable to 
the action of the digestive juices. 

COOKING OF MEATS— Meats may be cooked in 
various ways, according to the taste of the cook. Bak- 
ing, or roasting, is perhaps the best of all methods of 
cooking meat, as it best preserves the juices and at 
the same time imparts to the meat the most delicious 
flavor. In baking it is best to start the process with 
a very hot oven, say a temperature of 400 degrees 
Fahrenheit, and then, after keeping it at this temper- 
ature long enough thoroly to sear the outside, that is, 
ten minutes, lower the temperature to about 250 to 
275 degrees F. and bake until done enough to suit. 
Every ten or fifteen minutes baste the meat with its 
own juices, adding as much water to the liquid in the 
pan as may be needed, but no more. Do not salt until 
a few minutes before removing from oven, as cooking 
meat in salt toughens the meat and makes it less di- 
gestible. Keeping the oven too hot during the process 
likewise toughens the meat; just enough very high 
temperature to coagulate the albumin so as to keep 
in the juices at the start and then just enough heat 
to keep the meat cooking is all that is necessary. 

Boiling meat is properly done by boiling it for 
not more than the first ten or fifteen minutes and then 
allowing the process to slow down to a simmer. First 
have the water boiling and then plunge the meat into 
it, keeping the water boiling for the first ten minutes 
to coagulate the albumin and keep in the juices. Boil- 
ing after this is accomplished serves only to toughen 
the meat; let it simmer, or stew, until done. This 
should take about 20 to 25 minutes for each pound 


of meat; a three pound piece of meat could thus be 
cooked in about one hour to an hour and a half. 

Very tough meats should be cooked in a steamer or 
a pressure cooker, not boiled ; it is almost impossible to 
boil tough meats tender. Never soak meat in cold 
water, as this will extract part of the nutriment. 

Broiling meat is a very tasty way of cooking cer- 
tain cuts, especially where the meat is quite lean; to 
broil well the meat should not be cut too thick; it 
should be placed over, under, or in front of, the direct 
heat, as over or under a gas jet, or in front of or over 
a bed of coals, and turned from time to time to secure 
an even cooking; cook as long as necessary to bring 
to the desired state, whether rare, medium, or well 

Steaming is one of the best ways of cooking meats, 
being particularly fine for old fowls and tough pieces 
of meat. A f ireless cooker also has much to recommend 
it in the cooking of meats. It is convenient, cheap, 
and labor-saving and reliable. It is much better for 
cooking meats where the desire is to preserve all the 
flavoring than for cooking vegetables where it is in 
many cases necessary to allow the bad flavored gases 
to escape. 

Frying meat. Select a piece of meat of suitable 
size and then — broil it ! Or pan broil it, that is, fry in 
pan without grease. Fat, grease, is too scarce and 
expensive these days to waste by frying ; and all kinds 
of foods are too scarce and expensive to spoil by frying. 

Fish may be baked, boiled, or broiled and are 
most excellent meat substitutes cooked in any of 
these ways. If you must use flesh foods, use at least 
some fish ; they are cleaner, cheaper, and more plentiful 
than beef, pork, or mutton. 

Game may be cooked as other meats, being particu- 
larly tasty and nutritious baked, tho very good, indeed, 



GRAVIES — The best gravies are the natural grav- 
ies, that is, just the meat juices without any starchy 
thickening added. Remember the objection to cooking 
other foods, especially starches, in fat ! 

Before leaving the subject of the cooking of meats, 
let me add that the average person would be far better 
off, physically and financially for substituting eggs, 
milk, beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, and nuts for meat 
wherever and whenever possible. 

COOKING FRUITS— Let it be understood that 
altho recipes for cooking fruits are here given, they 
should whenever possible, be eaten raw. This applies 
where fruits have naturally ripened. Furthermore, 
whether eaten raw or cooked, their natural flavor 
should not be obscured by covering them with sugar, 
nutmeg, etc. They are best just as Nature made them. 
Eating sugar and cream on fruits is a habit that 
probably sprung out of the old idea that the main aim 
of eating was to eat as much "nourishing foods" as 
possible, hence to eat sugar, butter, and cream on all 
things that could be used as a pretext for eating these 
nourishing foods. Discriminating taste certainly never 
dictated it; what chance is there to discriminate 
between the taste of things whose natural flavors have 
been obscured! To the sugar fiend, all things must 
taste just alike, sweet. Such a person might just as well 
have none of the wonderful varieties of the seasons. 
There are a thousand different shades of flavor of 
which he knows nothing. Usually, too, such a one likes 
sour pickles, lots of salt on his vegetables, and tea, 
coffee, and beer. He comes to know but practically 
four flavors — sweet, sour, bitter and salty. Learn to 
eat fruits, not for the sugar and cream you can pile 
on them, but for their own individual flavors, as well 
as their health-giving qualities. 

Dried fruits, such as dried apples, dried pears, 
dried peaches, and figs, raisins, prunes, and currants 
may be stewed, or simmered, never boiled, until they 


absorb enough water to make them almost their nat- 
ural size, and thus very delicious and healthful. The 
latter group, figs, raisins, prunes and currents, may be 
soaked a few hours in warm water with equally pleas- 
ing results and are then even more nearly as when 
picked. Learn to soak your fruits more and not cook 
them so much. And learn to use dried fruits more; 
they are much better for you than granulated sugar 
and much more plentiful. But whenever possible insist 
on having the sun-dried and not the sulphured fruits. 
In soaking, wash thoroly first, being careful not to 
break the skins, and then soak; the juice makes a 
healthful and delicious beverage. 

SALADS — Let. us understand at the outset that 
when we are speaking of salads in this book, we are 
talking about real life-size salads and not about the 
conventional miniature imitations usually served. 
Salads as ordinarily served are so small, that, were 
it not for their spicy dressings, one would be unable 
to remember fifteen minutes after a meal whether he 
had had salad at all. When you serve a salad (and one 
should be served at at least two of the three daily 
meals) serve one that will be large enough to com- 
prise about one-fourth or one-third of the bulk of the 
entire meal. This will enable you to add infinite 
variety to the diet; give your teeth very beneficial 
and much needed exercise; prevent overeating of the 
more concentrated foods with its attendant waste and 
bodily ills; and, finally, insure the body's having an 
ample supply of alkaline mineral salts and the recent- 
ly discovered "vitamines," known to be so neccessary 
to perfect health and which are so easily destroyed 
by cooking. In making salads it is only necessary to 
apply the same common sense rules that are advo- 
cated in this book for the other parts of the meal and 
any one can make his or her own salad recipes without 
end to the variety possible. Simplicity should be the 
keynote of salad making. Use only good, clean, sound 


fruits, nuts, and vegetables and such simple dressings 
as are mentioned below and watch the improvement 
in your health. Cottage cheese and fish may be used 
occasionally in the making of a salad, tho it is hard- 
ly wise to eat fish salads unless you know absolutely 
that the fish in them is fresh and sound. Choosing at 
random from among our many varieties of salad plants 
and adding a few nuts, or a little fruit, or both, let 
us see what fine salads can be made, and that with very 
little work or expense. 

Grated carrots, halved grapes, and chopped celery 
make a salad that can hardly be surpassed and for 
which no dressing is needed. A few nuts may be added 
to this, or a little cottage cheese, if desired. Or, lettuce 
may be substituted for the celery in this salad. Most 
everyone is familiar with cabbage, apple, and celery 
salad, which needs no dressing at all or at most, but 
a little salt and oil. In fact, beside a little salt and 
some oil (olive, cottonseed, corn or peanut oils), very 
little is permissible in the way of salad dressing, except 
the juices of some fruits — say grape juice, orange 
juice, pineapple juice, grapefruit juice, or lemon or 
lime juice, according to the liking for sourness. How- 
ever, you must keep in mind continually in making 
salad dressings, as at all other times, that acids and 
starches are not to be eaten at the same meal, and that 
those with stomachs already too acid should not use 
acid salad dressings at all, or at least not until there 
has been an abatement of the secretion of acid by the 

Sour cream in moderation makes a good salad 

Other salads are: Tomato, cucumber, and onion. 

Tomato, cucumber, and celery. 

Tomato, cucumber and lettuce. 

Tomato, cabbage and celery. 

Celery, lettuce and cabbage. 


And so on ad infinitum. These are merely hints. 
Use two or three or four good crisp vegetables or 
vegetables and fruits, or vegetables, fruits and nuts, 
and you cannot go astray on salad making. 

However, I can not pass on without recommending 
for trial a salad that is almost a complete meal in 
itself. It originated with my wife, and the many 
friends to whom she has recommended it have called 
it the "MacMickle Salad." Here it is: Equal parts 
of cottage cheese and grated carrots, with a liberal 
sprinkling of halved, seeded grapes, or soaked seedless 
raisins stirred in, and the whole served on lettuce. Of 
course when such a salad is served in good sized por- 
tions no other protein is needed at the same meal. A 
good fish salad is made as follows: boiled salmon, or 
shrimp (or other fish that you know to be in good 
condition) shredded and mixed with tomato and chop- 
ped celery; add mayonnaise dressing made with egg 
yolk, oil, lemon juice, and little salt. 

Cherries, plums, berries, olives, oranges, pine- 
apples, grapefruit, apples, grapes, and other fruits may 
be used either in conjunction with vegetables, or to 
make a straight fruit salad. Such salads need little 
or no dressing. 

In using bananas in a salad it will be necessary to 
keep in mind the rule about acids and starches ; if the 
bananas are not dead-ripe, they should not be mixed 
in a salad with oranges or other acid fruits, for unripe 
bananas are quite starchy. There can be no such objec- 
tion to so using dead-ripe bananas, tho they are not 
so firm as the unripe ones and therefore do not hold 
up as well in the salad, are more liable to be crushed 
and mushy. Fruit salads are particularly to be recom- 
mended eaten with meats or fish and greens. 

Raisins, dates, and figs, and other dried fruits are 
not to be neglected as salad materials; they may be 
simply washed and added to the other ingredients, or 
they may be soaked for a few hours in warm water and 


softened and swollen to almost natural size before 
mixing. While mentioning the sweet fruits in this 
connection, let me suggest that you try using them as 
sweetening in otherwise sour dishes, where you ordi- 
narily use sugar. Rhubarb, for instance, is certainly 
very tart without any sweetening, but with a liberal 
sprinkling of raisins or dates, it becomes a much tast- 
ier dish than when granulated sugar is used. Straw- 
berries likewise; also apple sauce. From a financial 
point of view they are at least as cheap as sugar, and 
from a health point of view they are far superior. In 
baking apples, try coring the apple and stuffing the 
core hole with raisins, dates, or figs, particularly if 
the apples are tart. 

Honey is another thing that may safely be added 
in limited quantities to some salads, salads that seem 
to require a bit of sweetening. And, like the sweet 
fruits, it may also be used as a sweetener for the 
sour fruits. It is advisable in sweetening cooked fruits 
to add the honey after cooking and just before serving, 
or let each one sweeten his own dish at the table. In 
sweetening uncooked fruits with honey it is better 
to put the honey on the fruit and allow to stand for 
some time before serving. 


Regarding "Acid" and "Alkaline" Foods. 

In the recent past there has been an increasing 
amount of discussion regarding so-called "acid foods" 
and "alkaline foods," more properly called "acid-form- 
ing" and "base-forming" foods, respectively. Much 
that has been said about these foods is misleading. In 
fact, calling them "acid foods" instead of "acid-form- 
ing" foods and "alkaline foods" instead of "base-form- 


ing" foods, is itself misleading. What is really meant 
by these terms is, that certain foods have an acid- 
forming tendency and others have a base (alkaline) 
forming tendency — not, as some people think, that 
foods with a sour taste are acid-formers and foods 
not having a sour taste are base-formers. Whether 
or not a food has acid-forming properties or base- 
forming properties depends, not upon its taste, but 
upon the kind of "ash," or mineral residue, left after 
oxidation of the protein, fat, and carbohydrate which 
the food contains. This refers, of course, only to the 
natural properties of these foods when normally digest- 
ed and assimilated. But one must never forget that 
these same proteins, fats, and carbohydrates can them- 
selves break down into acid products under abnormal 
conditions of digestion and assimilation, regardless of 
the nature of their mineral content, (See chapter on 
"Fermentation and Putrefaction"). 

This brings us to a consideration of the mineral 
salts spoken of in the preceeding pages. If the ash 
contains an excess of acid-forming minerals over the 
amount of base-forming minerals present, then the food 
is truly an acid-forming food; if, on the other hand, 
the base-forming (or alkaline) minerals predominate 
in the ash, the food is a true base-former. The principal 
alkaline minerals are calcium (lime), magnesium, 
potassium, and sodium; the principal acid-forming 
minerals are phosphorus, chlorine and sulphur. It is 
not necessary that you remember the names of all 
these, for below are given a list of the principal acid- 
forming foods and alkaline, or base-forming foods. 

Given in the order of their acid-forming abilities, 
the most common acid-formers are 

Beef, free from visable fat, Eggs, Round steak, 
Oatmeal, Wheat flour, Wheat (entire grain), Rice, 
Bacon, Corn. 


Other foods that are acid-formers are, other kinds 
of meat, cereals in general, and fish. The whites 
of eggs are richer in acid-forming minerals than the 

Naturally anyone eating much of these acid-form- 
ing foods will need to eat a good deal of the base-form- 
ers in order to keep the blood alkaline and thus prevent 
"acidosis," or an acid condition of the blood and weak- 
ening of the alkalinity of the body's alkaline fluids 
in general. Following are some of the richest base- 
forming foods, given in the order of their base-form- 
ing strength: 

Celery, Cabbage, Potatoes, Prunes, Turnips, 
Apples, Milk, Beans, Peas. 

Notice that, with the exception of milk, all the 
foods here named are vegetable foods, and that, with 
the exception of potatoes and peas and beans, these are 
succulent foods. In fact, all succulent foods are base- 
forming, hence their importance in the diet. In prepar- 
ing these foods for the table be sure to keep in mind 
the principles outlined in the chapter on cooking, other- 
wise you will lose most of the valuable salts possessed 
by these foods. 

Here a special word regarding the cooking of beans 
may not be out of order. In cooking beans in the regu- 
lar way, that is, parboiling in soda and then recooking 
in fresh water, much of the alkaline salt is lost. If you 
would prevent this loss of the minerals, wash the beans 
thoroly and put into fresh, clean water and allow to 
soak over night. In the morning put on to cook in the 
same water and allow to cook until done and then 
pour into baking bowl and put into oven and bake 
to suit taste. Thus none of the food value of the beans 
is lost and in seasons when fresh fruits and vegetables 
are scarce, or impossible to obtain, the alkaline salts 
thus saved will go far toward preventing acidosis. 

Regarding the base-forming qualities of acid 
fruits, many people are puzzled how this can be 


so. Naturally one wonders how, when a food is acid, 
it can have the ability to keep the system alkaline. 
Prof. Sherman, of Columbia University, New York, 
explains this very nicely. He points out that the fact 
"that even the strongly acid fruits should yield an 
excess of bases on oxidation depends upon the fact 
that the acidity of the fruit is due to an organic acid" 
(an organic acid, not an inorganic acid, mind you) 
and explains that this acid when burned (oxidized) 
leaves an alkaline ash. Hence, you can see why these 
fruits are so useful in curing the various diseases 
caused by acidosis. I mention this because patients 
frequently ask me why, if they have acidosis, I give 
them acid fruits, and why these invariably cure their 

However, I sometimes find that people with exces- 
sively acid stomachs are better off for temporarily 
abstaining from all acid fruits, eating only the vegeta- 
bles and non-acid fruits, until there is an abatement in 
the secretion of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. 
For, where one already has too much acid secretion in 
the stomach, even the organic acids of fruits are liable 
to be very irritating and thus aggravate the condition, 
instead of helping it. Particularly is this liable to be 
true at first, tho as the blood and entire system once 
more become normally alkaline this tendency disap- 
pears. The reason for this irritating effect of acid 
fruits on acid stomachs is, that, while the acid is later 
oxidized and leaves an alkaline ash, this oxidation 
does not take place while the acid is in the stomach, 
so the acid of the fruit still remains an acid while in 
the stomach and can't help irritating it. Hence, celery, 
cabbage, potatoes, turnips, and milk, are far better 
to begin with in cases of acid stomach than the acid 
fruits. From the foregoing it should be plain to the 
reader, that if one has acidosis in any form, he should 
leave out all acid-forming foods and make his dietary 
entirely from the base-formers. 


Iron, Lime, Phosphorus, and Sulphur. 

No treatment of this subject of minerals would 
be complete without a discussion of iron, lime, phos- 
phorus, and sulphur in their especial bearing on the 
health. These minerals in particular call for consider- 
ation, both because of their own importance and 
because of the fact that where they are adequately 
supplied there will be no lack of the other minerals 
before mentioned. For the benefit of those who, for 
special reasons, need consciously to select foods rich 
in these elements, I will give herewith lists of food that 
contain most of each of these elements. These lists 
will name such foods in the order of their richness in 
each respective element; thus the foods richest in iron 
will be given under the heading "Foods Rich in Iron" 
with one containing most iron given first, the one 
containing second most iron, second, and so on. The 
same for lime, phosphorus and sulphur. 

IRON — To give an adequate idea of the importance 
of this element in the dietary would require a book 
larger than this one ; but let it suffice to say here that 
its importance is so great that without any of it one 
would soon die. You will understand this when you 
realize that it is the iron in the red corpuscles of the 
blood that enables them to absorb the oxygen from 
the air in the passage of the blood thru the lungs and 
to carry this oxygen to all parts of the body and yield 
it up wherever most needed. Without iron you could 
have no red corpuscles and without these you would 
die of oxygen starvation even if you were surrounded 
by pure oxygen. People who have insufficient iron 
are said to be anemic, that is lacking in red 
blood corpuscles, and one of the most distress- 
ing symptoms is shortness of breath and con- 
sequent lack of endurance, due to the inability 
of their blood to carry enough oxygen to meet 


the body's demand. That this is an exceedingly 
prevalent condition is evidenced by the popularity of 
the so-called "tonics" and "iron medicines," which, 
by the way, are extremely likely to be found to have 
no connection with iron — unless it be with the iron 
hearts of the conscienceless quacks who manufacture 
them, or, if they contain any at all, contain it in a form 
that the body cannot use. There is not a so-called 
"iron medicine" on the market today that is not an 
unmitigated fake, all their advertisements to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. Not a single one has even the 
remotest possibility of doing an anemic person the 
slightest good ; yet despite the fact that every last one 
of them has been shown to be humbug, pure and simple, 
they continue to exact toll from hosts of sufferers 
from anemia. The fact that hundreds of thousands 
of dollars are spent annually for these quack remedies, 
especially the better advertised ones, would seem to 
prove that there must be many people suffering from 
insufficient iron in their blood. But why do they 
continue to buy these fake medicines when they can do 
them no possible good and may do them much harm? 
They buy them for the same reason that they become 
anemic in the first place; they do not know where to 
get iron in a form that can be used by the body to make 
good red blood. 

There is just one source of this kind of iron and 
that is in foods where iron exists in a form that can 
be appropriated by the body and used for good blood- 
building. There is no other way to get iron that is 
of any use to the body. But so long as we persist in 
throwing away four-fifths of all the iron in wheat 
(and other cereal grains) when we mill it into "fine" 
white flour, and cook most of it out of our vegetables 
and throw it away because of the faulty methods of 
cooking conventionally used, just so long will we contin- 
ue to turn to magic patent medicines to make up the 
deficiency which we suffer as a consequence. Use the 


iron-containing foods that Nature has supplied so 
abundantly and use them in as nearly their natural 
form as possible, that is, don't mill out, or boil out, 
and throw away the iron which they contain, and you 
will have no need to worry about being anemic. Even 
the prostituted recommendations of a champion prize- 
fighter will have no interest for you. 

The following foods, given in the order of their 
iron content, contain the greatest percentages of iron 
of all foods: 

Lentils, Egg yolk, Beans dried white and lima, 
Peas dried, Wheat entire grain, Raisins, Rye entire 
grain, Hazelnuts, Barley entire grain, Oatmeal, Spinach, 
Figs dried, Dates, Prunes dried, Olives. 

Meat on the average is the richest in iron of all 
foods, but experiments tend to prove that the iron of 
meat is not well utilized by the body — probably because 
it has already been partially metabolized (used up) 
by the body functions of the animal, and largely because 
most of it is found in the blood of the animal and is 
consequently lost in killing and dressing. 

While the above are the fifteen food richest in 
iron, that is, containing the greatest percentages of 
iron, yet it is well to bear in mind that for the most 
part they are very concentrated foods, in fact, all 
except spinach. Being of such high fuel value, it is 
not well to depend upon these as the sole source of iron 
supply, especially for the sedentarily employed and 
all others who don't need a fairly large fuel supply. 
For the sedentary and inactive, the following list is 
far better to choose from for iron. These are given in 
the order of their richness in iron in proportion to 
their total fuel value and because their total fuel value 
is low, the proportion of iron is high. Hence, they are 
a much better source of iron for the inactive and seden- 
tary than the above named foods. They are: 

Spinach, Lettuce, Asparagus, String Beans, Cab- 
bage, Celery, Strawberries, Radishes, Tomatoes, 


Squash, Fresh Peas, Carrots, Potatoes, Huckleberries, 

Other foods quite rich in iron are: Beets, turnips, 
cranberries, onions, pineapples, dandelion greens and 
fresh lima beans. Dried sweet corn, walnuts, almonds, 
and peanuts, tho belonging to the heavier, or more 
concentrated group of foods, are also quite rich in iron. 

From the foregoing, then, it would appear that 
anyone whose diet contains a liberal allowance of the 
greens and salad plants above named and some whole 
grain foods, together with the legumes, and the dried 
fruits and nuts would not be liable to iron shortage 
and consequent anemia. It is well to bear in mind that 
while many people are suffering from a lack of iron, 
it is impossibe to get too much food iron. If you eat 
more food iron than the body needs, any excess over 
the body's ability to store it will simply be passed 
out and no harm done. On the other hand, you will 
be insuring yourself against the possibility of a lack 
of it, you w r ill be taking a real health insurance. So 
far as any excess of iron is concerned, the reverse is 
more likely to be true of the average American dietary. 

Prof. Sherman, one of America's greatest author- 
ities on foods and nutrition, particularly emphasizes 
the necessity of allowing ourselves a liberal allowance 
of food iron. He says : "The typical American dietary 
does not contain any such surplus of iron as would 
justify the usual practice of leaving the supply of this 
element to chance. The available data rather indicate 
that foods should be selected with some reference to 
the kinds and amounts of iron compounds which they 
contain/' Regarding the losses of iron in milling 
wheat, he says: "Iron, is found in considerable quan- 
tity in the cereal grains, but the greater part of it 
is in the germ and outer layers and so is rejected in the 
making of the 'finer' mill products, such as patented 
flour, polished rice, and new-process corn meal." 


Very evidently, then, a list of the iron containing 
foods, such as is given above, can prove very useful 
not only to the sick, but to the well. And I recommend, 
first, the eating of at least one of these iron foods at 
every meal; second, eating such foods raw w r henever 
possible; third, always eating the juices of these vege- 
tables when cooked ; and fourth, chewing these, as well 
as all other foods, very thoroly, so that the body may 
easily digest and absorb every bit of their iron content. 
Young spinach, lettuce, celery, tender asparagus tips, 
cabbage, strawberries, yolk of egg 9 tomatoes, etc., can 
all be eaten raw and with great advantage. The tender 
vegetables, taken either alone, or mixed with other 
vegetables, make very delicious salads, which, if chewed 
thoroly will be readily assimilated and will build good 
red blood. 

LIME — The importance of this element is not fully 
realized even by many dietitians, but when you know 
that it not only constitutes the greatest part of the 
bones, but that it also enables the heart to contract 
and that without it the blood could not coagulate and 
one would bleed to death from comparatively simple 
wounds, you begin to grasp its importance. So import- 
ant is it that animals will do almost anything to get 
it; carnivorous animals will even eat vegetables to get 
lime, if fed plain meat without any bone; for, says 
Sherman, "No animal is literally carnivorous in nature, 
that is, none lives on flesh alone; the animals called 
carnivora always eat more or less of the bones of their 
prey." Calcium salts are also necessary to the contract- 
ility, or ability to contract, of the muscles in general, 
as well as of the heart muscles. In the light of this, 
then, it is easy to see the necessity of having a fairly 
liberal supply of this element in the dietaries of people 
of all ages, and particularly of growing youngsters. 
Necessary as it is for adults, children positively must 
have a liberal supply of it. Prof. Sherman tells us 
that the average American dietary is lacking in this 


element and says, "Apparently there should be more 
attention to the choice of such foods as will increase 
the calcium content of the dietary/' Bunge, Meltzer, 
and other investigators agree with Prof. Sherman in 
this. We must begin consciously choosing our foods 
with the idea of increasing our calcium allowance, par- 
ticularly where there are children to be considered. 
Here is a list of the fifteen foods richest in lime given 
in order of their richness, based on the percentage of 
calcium in the edible portion: 

Cheese hard, Molasses, Mustard, Turnip tops, 
Cottage cheese, Almonds, Dried figs, Water cress, Rye 
bran, Dried beans, Egg yolk, Chives, Cow peas, Cauli- 
flower, Milk. 

Other foods rich in lime are: Celery, buttermilk, 
spinach, lettuce, rhubarb, leeks, turnips, cabbage, and 

Speaking of the quantity of lime in milk, Prof. 
Sherman points out that there is as much lime in one 
and one-fourth pounds of milk as in more than ten 
pounds of round steak, or eight pounds of good grade 
white bread, or in four pounds of bread and six pounds 
of steak. He then says: "The fruits and vegetables 
generally are fairly rich in calcium, and some of the 
green vegetables strikingly so; but in most cases the 
the intake of calcium depends mainly upon the extent 
to which milk (and its products, other than butter) 
enters into the dietary. A quart of milk contains rather 
more lime than a quart of clear saturated lime water, 
and by far the most practical means of insuring an 
abundance of lime in the dietary is to use milk freely 
as a food." 

People who, for one reason or another, need to 
avoid an excess of lime, as well as people who want 
to increase the lime supply of their dietaries will find 
the above table of lime foods invaluable. Naturally, 
this would apply to old people who do not need more 
lime for bone building, or but very little at most, and 


to growing children who do need lots of bonebuilding 
material. On this point, Bunge, an investigator, says: 
"Calcium more than any other inorganic element is 
likely to be deficient as the result of the change in diet 
from mother's milk to other forms of food." Obvious- 
ly, then, Prof. Sherman's recommendation to use cow's 
milk is particularly applicable to children. 

PHOSPHORUS — Because of its functions in bone- 
building and in the fluids of the body and because, as 
one investigator points out, "A comparison of the 
amounts of phosphorus contained in the food of typical 
American dietaries with the amounts metabolized 
(used by the body) indicates that a freely chosen diet 
does not always furnish an abundance of phosphorus 
compounds," I have deemed it necessary to furnish 
a list of foods rich in this element for your guidance. 
Again, phosphorus is perhaps more important to the 
young and growing than to the adult or aged, as it is 
quite necessary to the building of a good, vigorous 
bony frame-work. However, it is absolutely necessary 
to the muscles and the brain and nerves, even tho to a 
less extent than in the bones ; so its importance for all 
cannot be overlooked. In fact, Sherman regards it as 
being equally as essential as protein and thinks that 
many of the ill effects attributed to a low protein diet 
by the advocates of a high protein diet are rather due 
to a lack of phosphorus. You will remember that the 
concensus of opinion among the majority of inves- 
tigators is now in favor of a low protein diet. He 
says: "The phosphorus compounds are as universally 
distributed in the body and as strictly essential to every 
living cell as are the proteins. It appears probable 
that much malnutrition attributed to low protein diet 
is really due to deficiency of phosphorus (and possi- 
bly calcium also) in the food." 

The following are our foods richest in this element : 

Rye bran, Wheat bran, Cheese hard, Beans dried, 

Mustard, Egg yolk, Cow peas, Barley entire grain, 


Peas dried, Wheat entire grain, Peanuts, Oatmeal, 
Almonds, Rye entire grain, Sweet corn dried. 

Note that with the exception of rye, bran, wheat 
bran, and mustard, they are all quite concentrated 
foods, mostly cereal grains and legumes. 

The kinds of phosphorus compounds found in 
grains and legumes are called "phytates" and one 
authority says of them, " Considering the quantities 
in which they occur in grains and other vegetable foods, 
the phytates must be regarded as one of the most 
important dietetic sources of phosphorus. ,, He further 
says: "It is interesting to note that the phosphorus 
of wheat bran is mainly in the form of phytates, which 
are easily extracted and doubtless readily absorbed 
from the digestive tract." He then states a very inter- 
esting fact, namely: "Washed wheat bran fed to cows 
was found to be constipating, indicating that the laxa- 
tive property of ordinary bran and whole w r heat 
products is dependent not simply upon mechanical 
irritation, but largely, if not mainly, upon the 

The phosphorus found in egg yolks, milk, and 
cheese are referred to as phosphorized fats and "these 
occur in large quantities in brain and nerve substance." 

However, the question again raises itself, as with 
regard to the other minerals, how to get enough of this 
valuable element without eating too much food of high 
fuel value. Again the solution is the same — the fresh 
vegetables, together with bran, both rye and wheat, 
and other foods of high fuel value. 

Here are some foods low in fuel value and rich 
in phosphorus: Buttermilk, celery, spinach, mush- 
rooms, lettuce, cauliflower, cucumbers, leeks, pumpkins, 
and asparagus. These should of course, furnish the 
chief phosphorus supply in the dietaries of those not 
actively engaged in muscular work, nor exposed to 
extreme cold, hence, needing but little fuel food. 
Chocolate and cocoa are quite rich in phosphorus, but 


their use cannot be recommended, especially for child- 
ren, so they are not given in the above list. Likewise 
fish and meat are quite rich in phosphorus, but as 
Sherman says, " the phosphorus exists (at least after 
cooking) so largely in the form of simple phosphates 
that it possibly should not be considered as of equal 
value with the phosphorus of other foods." He then 
sums up by saying, " In general therefore, the most 
practicable and economic method of securing an abun- 
dance of phosphorus in suitable forms is in the free 
use of milk, eggs, vegetables, and such cereal products 
and breadstuffs as contain at least a part of the outer 
layers as well as of the inner portion of the grains. 

These elements, while equally as important, each in 
its way, as those already dealt with, need not be men- 
tioned at length here. For, when the body's require- 
ments of the other minerals are met^there will be no 
lack of these three. Here it will be sufficient for us 
to know that an abundance of sodium is needed in the 
blood and other fluids of the body and to a less extent 
in the tissues ; that magnesium enters largely into the 
formation of the bones; and that potassium occurs 
mostly in the soft tissues, in the corpuscles of the blood, 
in the protoplasm of the muscles, and in such highly 
specialized glandular secretions as milk. These all 
abound in vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, and the 
cereal grains, that is, the whole grains, not such emas- 
culated products as white flour, new-process corn meal, 
and polished rice. All three of these minerals, as well 
as lime, already so thoroly dealt with, are alkaline and 
important factors in keeping the body normally 

In addition to these might also be mentioned 
chlorine, found in most foods, whose chief usefulness 
to the body is to help form the hydrochloric acid of 
the stomach. Chlorine is an acid-forming material, 
and some of it is needed, yet the general tendency 


is to run to an excess rather than the opposite, especi- 
ally is this true of those who use table salt so copiously. 
This is, as you remember, a compound of sodium and 
chlorine and is called by the chemist, sodium chloride. 
And since there has been of recent years a great deal 
of dispute as to the propriety of the use of salt, let 
us see what Bunge, who carried on a series of investi- 
gation along this line, has to say. He concludes that 
while one might live without the addition of salt to 
the food even on a diet largely vegetarian, yet without 
salt we should have a strong disinclination to eat much 
of the vegetables rich in potassium, such as potatoes. 
Says he, "the use of salt enables us to employ a greater 
variety of the world's products as food than we could 
do without it." However, "we are accustomed to take 
far too much salt with our viands. Salt is not only an 
aliment, it is also a condiment and easily lends itself, 
as all such things do, to abuse." Sherman also thinks 
we eat far too much salt and says that less than one- 
fourth of what we ordinarily eat would be plenty to 
keep us in health. To assert, as some writers on diet 
have asserted, that salt is not needed and that it is 
injurious is to make claims not supported by the avail- 
able evidence, but rather based upon pet theory. Many, 
if not most, vegetarian animals eat some salt and, 
like man, w r ould probably take a lot more if they could 
obtain it. Man is not the only animal that lets his 
appetite for such things get the better of him; many 
animals would eat more salt than is good for them 
if they got the chance. Some animals seem to get along 
on but very little. Carnivorous animals show decidedly 
less craving for salt than herbivorous animals, probably 
because they get all they need from the flesh of their 
herbivorous prey. But there is no argument from 
nature why man should not use some salt, living on 
a mixed and often largely vegetarian diet as he does. 
In fact certain chemical processes taking place in the 
body are at least accelerated, if not actually brot about, 


by salt. For this so little is necessary that what we 
eat in comparison with what we need may have led 
some writers to assert that we need none. 

SULPHUR — This element calls for particular men- 
tion not because there is liable to be any shortage of 
it in the average dietary, but because there may be 
trouble from an excess of it, particularly in its cooked 
form, in which condition it may and frequently does 
cause the formation of gas in the intestines. Especi- 
ally is it liable to cause gas in the intestines when eaten 
in foods that are improperly cooked. Eaten in the 
form found in raw foods, it seldom gives any such 
trouble. Mention was made of this in the chapter 
on cooking in dealing with cauliflower and the cabbage 
family. The heat required in cooking seems to render 
the sulphur of some foods peculiarly likely to form gas. 
This is probably brot about by the decomposition, the 
breaking down, of the organic compound containing the 
sulphur from the effects of the heat used in cooking. 
This formation of gas must be prevented in the sick, 
especially those suffering from digestive disturbances 
and nervous derangements and anemia. It accentuates 
already existing digestive troubles; it irritates and 
aggravates nervous disturbances; and it prevents 
absorption of the food iron by the anemic. Nor is it 
good for the well to be going around continually inflated 
with hydrogen sulphid, or some other volatile sulphur 
compound ; they won't long remain well if they do. On 
the other hand, the sulphur compounds of some foods 
seem not to cause this trouble and may at times even 
prove a very good laxative. Thus, that in wheat bran 
and in raw cabbage has decidely laxative virtues. 

Foods containing sulphur compounds that seem to 
cause intestinal gas are : Egg whites, horseradish, had- 
dock and pike and some other fish, cauliflower, leeks, 
onions, turnips and turnip tops, cucumbers, radishes, 
veal, frog's flesh, raw peanuts, dried beans (when im- 
properly cooked) and rye. Not all these foods cause 


gas in everyone, especially if properly cooked, but some 
of them will cause gas in some people, no matter how 
well cooked. It seems to be to a certain extent depend- 
ent upon personal idiosyncrasy. If you find that any 
of the above foods forms gas in your intestines, let it 
alone or try it prepared in a different way. 

In thus avoiding these sulphur containing foods 
you are in no great danger of suffering from a lack 
of this element, for it is found in all proteins, and the 
body's need of it is so small that when the protein 
supply is sufficient the sulphur supply is also sufficient. 
One of the interesting facts in this connection is that 
when proteins are oxidized in the body, their sulphur 
becomes converted for the most part into sulphuric 
acid, which, of course, must be neutralized as rapidly 
as it is formed, since free sulphuric acid even in weak 
concentration would be very injurious to the cells. 
This neutralization is brot about principally by the 
sodium previously mentioned, the sodium being a base 
and the sulphur an acid-former. 

Having thus discussed the various mineral salts 
generally and quite in detail, I can perhaps best impress 
upon you the vital importance of these by quoting from 
an article by a competent writer in an authoritative 
medical journal. He says: "Up to a very recent time 
text-books on physiology taught the budding physician 
that the three chief foods of men were proteins, fats, 
and carbohydrates, which were treated at some length 
by the author. Tucked snugly beneath these, the min- 
eral salts received a bare mention, the author explaining 
that little or nothing was known of their action in 

"The fact is that proteins, fats, and carbohydrates 
are not the three chief foods of man. The chief foods 
of man are air, water and the mineral salts." Further, 
he says, "That these are absolutely essential to life 
is shown by the fact that animals die after a short time 
when fed on a food deprived of its mineral salts." 


Again, "These important mineral salts are found in 
their best condition and most assimilable form in the 
vegetable kingdom, where in the fruits and vegetables 
they lie most abundantly just under the skin. They 
are removed by thick paring, soaking in water after 
paring, boiling in quantities of water which dissolves 
them and then draining the valuable solution down the 
sink." And still further, "If we had a well-balanced 
ration, properly cooked, so that the essential mineral 
salts would remain to be assimilated, there would be 
little or none of that deficiency in the composition of 
the blood which invites disease." 

To conclude this subject, let us quote from Dr. 
Horace Packard's very interesting article, "Demineral- 
ized Food and Cancer" (Boston Medical and Surgical 
Journal, March 31, 1912) . After speaking of the almost 
universal use of white bread with its lack of mineral 
salts among most of the civilized peoples of the 
world, he points out that there are still communities 
so isolated that "the material for making bread which 
is white does not reach them," or in but very small 
quantities and says, "The interesting and impressive 
thing about these people is that they do not have 
cancer, or, if at all, to so slight a degree that it is a 
negligible quantity. Those people who inhabit the trop- 
ical portions of the earth, furnished by Nature with 
a bountiful food-supply of fruits and vegetables, rich 
in the food salts, and which are consumed mostly with- 
out cooking, are cancer-free, or, if afficted at all, in so 
slight a degree that it is a negligible quantity. Turning 
now to the temperate zone : Along this belt of the earth 
are the nations which have reached the highest type 
of civilization, and it is strictly among these people 
that cancer has steadily augmented until it has reached 
proportions which constitute a scourge." 

Whether demineralized food is or is not entirely 
responsible for cancer, there is no doubt among those 
competent to form an opinion that such food is largely 


responsible for many, if not most of our so-called 
degenerative diseases. Pay conscious attention to this 
subject of minerals salts in your food selections and 
preparations and avoid any possibilities on this score. 

The Why of the Rules. 

In the beginning of this book you were promised 
that a discussion of the reasons underlying the rules 
would follow the rules laid down for your guidance. 
People are no longer satisfied with a mere statement 
that a thing is or is not so. They demand the facts 
on which statements are based. This is true not only 
of things in general, but of questions of health in par- 
ticular, and more particularly still of questions of diet. 
It is a good tendency and one that should be cultivated. 
I always encourage it on the diet question. For, if once 
people know the facts underlying the rules of diet, 
as outlined in this book, the rules themselves will 
appear so logical and inescapable that they cannot be 
forgotten. Nor will one well-grounded in the funda- 
mental principles of the chemistry of foods and the 
physiology and chemistry of nutritition here given 
ever need be puzzled by the conflicting theories so 
frequently met with in the literature of diet, for such 
a one will be in a position to examine any dietetic theory 
and determine its truth or falsity. 

What follows, as well as what has preceded, is 
based upon the works, experiments, and investigations 
of such men as Professors Langworthy and Atwater, 
and other U. S. experts, and Professor Sherman, of 
Columbia University, Professor Russel Chittenden, and 
other men of national and international standing in the 


field of physiology and allied branches. Howell, 
Cannon, Starling, and others have been drawn upon for 
the facts of the physiology and chemistry of nutrition 
which follow. 

MOUTH DIGESTION— A wise old doctor once told 
a "dyspeptic" patient whom he had observed eating and 
who was berating his stomach, "Your stomach would 
be all right but for the indigestion of the mouth from 
which you are suffering." There are plenty of people 
who do not know that digestion, or indigestion, begins 
in the mouth, that is, granting that the food has been 
properly prepared before serving, prepared as 
prescribed in the preceding pages of this book. 

There are two factors in mouth digestion, viz., 
the mechanical and the chemical factors. The first con- 
sists in the use of the teeth in dividing and subdividing 
the food into the smallest possible particles. This can 
only be accomplished by a vigorous use of the jaws. 
To chew thoroly and efficiently it is necessary not only 
to work the jaws up and down, but to a still greater 
extent sideways and to some extent forwards and back- 
wards also. If you would get a first class idea of the 
proper manner of chewing watch the cow. Note the 
side to side motion, or lateral bite, as it is called, as 
that is the most important part of proper mastica- 
tion and one that is all too frequently neglected by 
many people. 

This method of chewing will accomplish two 
things : First it will render the food so fine as to make 
it easy for the digestive juices, including the saliva, 
to act upon it ; and second, it will stimulate the flow of 
saliva itself. Also, it will allow the saliva a longer 
time in which to act upon the food. 

The second factor in mouth digestion, the chemical 
factor, consists in the conversion of starches into dex- 
trins and of both starches and dextrins into maltose. 
A little explanation: The first step in the digestion 
of starches is their conversion into dextrins, which 


are then converted into maltose, which is, in turn, 
converted into glucose (grape sugar) in the small intes- 
tines, and is then ready for absorption into the blood 
and use by the body for its energy. Dextrins are 
intermediate between starch and maltose and may be 
produced from starch by the action of «heat, as in 
making toast, or by the action of ferments (or 
enzymes) , as in malting grain. If the malting process 
is allowed to continue, the dextrins are converted into 
maltose. Now the saliva also contains an enzyme, 
known as ptyalin, which has the power to convert 
starches into dextrins and, if given time, to convert 
both starches and dextrins into maltose. Its power of 
doing this is truly wonderful, for it can convert many 
times its own weight of starch into maltose under 
proper conditions, such as furnished by the mouth in 
normal mastication. 

Hence, you can see the very great importance of 
proper mastication. For, not only is all the food then 
rendered much easier of digestion for the stomach and 
intestines, but a good part of the digestion of starches 
is already done before they ever reach the intestines, 
which is as it should be. And another thing, this will 
result in such a thoro digestion of the food and such a 
complete absorption of its contained nutriment that not 
nearly so much food will be needed. 

STOMACH DIGESTION— When food that has 
been properly mouth-treated, has had proper mouth 
digestion, reaches the stomach it gets somewhat differ- 
ent treatment. Saliva is alkaline, but gastric juice is 
acid. The enzyme, ptyalin, can act only in an alkaline 
medium ; the enzyme pepsin, found in the stomach, acts 
in an acid medium. There is also still another differ- 
ence, the saliva attacks only starches and dextrins, 
while the gastric juice attacks principally proteins and, 
to a very limited extent, fats, but no starches or other 


To describe it briefly and untechnically, the stom- 
ach is divided into three regions, both as regards its 
muscular functions and as regards its secretions. When 
food passes down the gullet, it drops into the main part 
of the stomach, known as the body of the stomach, or, 
technically, .the "fundus." The secretion here is neu- 
tral, or, according to Howell, even slightly alkaline. 
As the food enters the body (or fundus) of the stomach, 
which we shall call "the first part" for convenience, it 
forms in concentric layers. That is, what comes first 
forms a layer next to the stomach walls, what comes 
next forms a layer inside the first layer, what comes 
next forms a layer inside the preceding layer, and so 
on, each sucessive quantity of food forming a layer 
just inside the layer that preceded it, until the meal 
is finished or the stomach is full. During the entrance 
of food this first part of the stomach does practically 
nothing in a muscular way except to expand and make 
more room for food that is continually pouring into it 
while the meal is in progress. Then, in twenty to 
thirty minutes, it begins slowly contracting and thus 
gradually but steadily forces a part of the food, par- 
ticularly the more liquid portions of it, into the "middle 
region," which we shall here refer to as "the second 
part." This contraction of the first part and the con- 
sequent forcing forward of its contents into the middle 
or second part continues until all the food has finally 
been forced onward into the second part, which may 
take two hours or more. Here in the "second part," 
there is a very heavy secretion, rich both in acid 
(hydrochloric acid) and pepsin. And here also there 
is a great deal more motion than in the first part. A 
series of wave-like muscular constrictions attends to 
the thoro mixing of the food with the acid and pepsin 
and finally forces it foreward into the third part 
(technically called the "pyloric part)". 

In this third part, which secretes but little, if 
any acid, but a great deal of pepsin, the food is indeed 


thoroly "churned." It is forced forward and back- 
ward time and time again until it becomes very thoroly 
mixed and acidified and it is then literally squirted into 
the first part of the small intestine, called the duode- 
num, of which you will hear more later. This squirt- 
ing is brot about by the constriction of the muscles 
behind the food and the opening of a little muscular 
valve in the end of the stomach. This valve opens 
only when the food has been thoroly acidified, that is, 
when there is more acid in the mixture than will chem- 
ically combine with the food, and closes when the acid 
comes into contact with the intestinal lining. So that 
not much food passes from the stomach to the intes- 
tines at a time — at least not during the early stages 
of digestion, tho later, toward the end of the process, 
the valve opens up and lets the residue, even quite 
large pieces, pass thru. 

Now, in view of the fact that the food rests in the 
first of the stomach, where the secretion is either neu- 
tral or even slightly alkaline, for from twenty to thirty 
minutes before it moves onward into contact with any 
acid, and in view of the fact that it may take as long 
as two hours or more before the last of the food finally 
comes into contact with the acid, you can easily see 
that salivary digestion does not stop as soon as food 
reaches the stomach, but may continue for from twenty 
or thirty minutes on the outside of the food mass to 
two hours or more on the inside of the mass. Hence 
you can realize the very great importance of Fletcher- 
izing — of thoroly chewing and insalivating your food. 
This fact also explains "the why" of the rule against 
combining starches and acids at the same meal. For, 
if the two are eaten at the same meal so that the acid 
can seep down thru or premeate the entire mass of food 
as it lies in the first part of the stomach, the alkalinity 
of the saliva will be all too prematurely neutralized 
and the action of the ptyalin stopped and itself destroy- 
ed. Thus starch digestion will be prevented until the 


food has reached the intestines and during the mean- 
time, when the starch might have been digesting, it 
will have plenty of opportunity to lie in the stomach 
and ferment and cause gas and all the other ills arising 
from starch fermentation. The reason for not frying 
starches, or any other foods, in fat, as we have already 
seen, is that the fat is rendered indigestible in frying 
and hence renders every particle of food with which 
it comes into contact indigestible also. But why should 
frying render fat indigestible and boiling not so effect 
it ? Simply because in boiling in water the temperature 
cannot rise above the boiling point and this does not 
change the chemical nature of the fat, while in frying 
the temperature is sure to be above the boiling point 
and may go to several hundred degrees, which does 
result in a chemical change in the fat that renders it 
not only indigestible but highly irritating to the mucous 
lining of the whole digestive tract. Hence, frying is not 
only wasteful of fat, it is wasteful of the food that 
is fried in the fat — and highly injurious. Don't fry 
anything ! 

Tho the rule against combining two or more con- 
centrated foods at the same meal was discussed briefly 
in the chapter on rules, yet it is of so much importance, 
particularly to those of sedentary lives, who are neither 
subject to actual physical exertion nor exposed to 
extreme cold nor inclement weather, that we shall 
discuss it more fully here. 

To begin with, a concentrated food might be 
defined as one containing much nutriment in little bulk. 
A food that is nearly all nourishment and contains 
but little or no waste, water, or indigestible residue is 
a concentrated food. Such foods will yield many more 
calories, or heat units per pound than foods that con- 
tain considerable water and indigestible refuse. Anyone 
can understand why sugar with it 1800 calories per 
pound should be called a concentrated food, while 
lettuce with 90 calories per pound would be anything 


but a concentrated food. One contains absolutely no 
waste or water, the other, 94.7 per cent water. It would 
require 20 pounds of the latter to give the same fuel 
value that can be gotten from one pound of the former. 
Plainly then, a food which yields 20 times as many 
calories per pound as another is a concentrated food. 
Likewise, in deciding whether a food is a concentrated 
protein food, it is easily seen that full cream cheese 
with 25 per cent protein is a much more concentrated 
protein food than whole milk with but 3.3 per cent 
protein. Similarly for fats, a food like peanut butter 
containing about 47 per cent fat is much more concen- 
trated in fat than a food like apricots which contain 
but 1 per cent. But whether a food be rich in carbo- 
hydrates, protein, or fat, it is a concentrated food 
and very high in fuel value, tho the last is 2% times 
as high in fuel value as the two former. Hence, eating 
two or more concentrated foods at the same meal and 
eating, as many of us do, all we want, which is 
frequently all we can hold, at each meal, we are 
absolutely sure to get too much fuel — too much concen- 
trated food and too little indigestible residue. 

This is very unhealthful, first, because we have no 
need of so much fuel, and second, because our digestive 
apparatus is not adapted to handling so much concen- 
trated food. It might help you to grasp this by point- 
ing out a few interesting comparisons between modern 
man and his historic ancestor. In the first place, 
according to all the authorities whom I have consulted 
there is absolutely no evidence to show that primitive 
man had any larger food capacity than has modern 
man. Certain it is that his food supply was not nearly 
as constant; he ate when he could and probably all he 
could, but it is extremely doubtful if he had regular 
meals daily. In fact, it is almost impossible that he 
should have had three meals daily as a regular thing, 
for his food supply was too limited for that, except 
perhaps during the summer and early fall when fruits 


and nuts were plentiful. For the rest of his diet he 
must have depended largely upon the fruits of the 
chase and such fish as he was able to catch ; in view of 
his primitive means of obtaining either fish or game 
it is extremely doubtful if his larder could have main- 
tained a three-meal-a-day program regularly. And 
probably the only foods he ate that were as concen- 
trated as those we eat today were the nuts and the 
meats. Aside from these his diet consisted almost 
entirely of the bulky vegetables and the juicy fruits 
and berries and such roots as he found edible. Further, 
it must be remembered that in the pre-agricultural 
days in which he lived, this primitive ancestor, whose 
food capacity was so like our own, had none of the 
cultivated vegetables that we have today. Bulky and 
fibrous and coarse as some of our vegetables are, those 
that he had to eat were probably much more bulky, 
fibrous, and coarse. So it is certain that we have foods 
of a concentration never dreamed of by our remote 
forebears and that we eat much oftener and more 
regularly than they did. Now, as a matter of fact 
the digestive system that we possess and that so resem- 
bles that of our ape-like progenitors, was evolved 
and handed down to us hereditarily. It has, 
as said before, changed but little, if any. And it is still 
better adapted to handling more of the bulky rather 
than so much of the concentrated foods. Hence, a diet 
composed largely or exclusively of such concentrated 
foods as bread, meat, pies, cakes, puddings, and other 
concentrated foods, with greens, salads, and juicy 
fruits constituting but a minor portion, a diet such as 
is so often followed by those who can afford it, cannot 
but prove injurious to the digestive apparatus. Such 
a diet is responsible for most of our digestive ills and 
all the host of resultant ailments, such as colds, catarrh, 
rheumatism and so on, ad nauseam. If primitive man 
got along so well with so little concentrated food, 
modern man, with his warm clothes and sheltered life, 


does not need anything like the amounts of concen- 
trated foods that he eats. Hence, the rule against 
eating more than one concentrated food at a meal has 
double justification. And so far as the sedentarily 
employed are concerned, I consider that the 
perfect dietetic arrangement for them is to eat no 
breakfast, or one composed solely of the juicy fruits; 
to eat a luncheon at least two-thirds of which should 
consist of foods of the succulent class and the other 
third of concentrated proteins with, or without, a little 
fat, or, concentrated starch with, or without, a little 
fat ; and a dinner constructed after the same manner as 
the luncheon. 

And here, since we have just been discussing con- 
centrated foods, a few remarks regarding how many 
calories a food must yield per pound before it can be 
called a concentrated food may not be amiss. Necessar- 
ily any standard must be more or less arbitrary, but 
I believe personally that any food yielding more than 
500 calories per pound should be considered concen- 
trated. Naturally also, of the concentrated foods some 
are much more concentrated than others. Thus lard 
with its more than 4000 calories to the pound is more 
concentrated than eggs with 635; but both are, from 
my point of view, concentrated foods. And here, by the 
way, is the chief value to the average person of tables 
of caloric values of foods and their percentages of 
protein, fat, and carbohydrates ; such tables enable you 
to tell which foods are concentrated and whether their 
concentration is in the form of protein, fat, or carbo- 
hydrate or all three. For example, if a food yields 
1500 calories per pound, 70 per cent in carbohydrates, 
then it is easy to see that that food is a concentrated 
carbohydrate. Cake would be an easy example of such 
a food. If, on the other hand, a food of high caloric 
value contain the greater percentage of its nutriment 
in the form of protein, then that food is a concentrated 


protein. Steak would be such a food. Likewise a food 
of high caloric value whose greater percentage was 
fat would be called a concentrated fat. Butter would 
be an example. And, finally, when you find a food 
containing, say, 2,560 calories of which 25 per cent 
are in the form of protein, 38 per cent in the form 
of fat, and 24 per cent in the form of carbohydrates, 
you have a food that is at the same time a concen- 
trated protein, a concentrated fat, and a concentrated 
carbohydrate. The humble peanut is an example of 
such a food. So, in this respect, a table giving the 
caloric values and the percentages of the various kinds 
of nutrients in the different foods is very valuable 
to the student of dietetics. The best work of this 
kind with which the author is acquainted is Bulletin 
No. 28, 'The Chemical Composition of American Food 
Materials" — by Professor Atwater and Bryant and for 
sale by the Superintendent of Public Documents, Wash- 
ington, D. C, for the sum of ten cents in money, not 
stamps. Get it and study it. Among other things 
this bulletin will help you to economize. For, if you 
turn to it and find that two foods are of practically the 
same fuel value and about the same composition, nat- 
urally it will be more economical to buy the one that 
costs the less. Thus you will often be able to get more 
food for a given sum of money than you would other- 
wise obtain. However, it must be born in mind that 
the number of calories furnished by a food is not the 
only criterion of the value of that food. Nor is ease 
of digestion the main criterion. For a food may be of 
very high caloric value, sell for very little money, and 
also be very easily digested and yet not make a good 
article of food as a steady diet. One pound of sugar, 
for instance, with its 1800 calories, would furnish 
enough food, measured solely by calories, for a day's 
rations for a man who was not too actively engaged 
in muscular work, and in very easily digested form, 
for the small sum of only ten cents at present prices. 


But, of course, one would soon starve to death on an 
exclusive sugar diet, regardless of its cheapness and 
digestibility, even tho he ate five pounds daily. So you 
can see that while calories are useful in a limited way 
in enabling you to determine which foods offer the 
most fuel for the least money, yet to judge the value 
of a food only by its calories is almost sure to lead 
to an unbalanced diet. Its relative amounts of protein, 
fat, carbohydrates, and mineral salts must also be taken 
into consideration. 

But, as for trying to figure out to the exact calory 
how much food you are eating and how much you 
actually need, forget it. You can't do it and do anything 
else! Different methods of preparation affect the 
caloric value of a food ; different capabilities of diges- 
tion must be considered in determining how much value 
the body actually gets out of a given food, and a number 
of other factors and circumstances beyond your ability 
to determine, affect the reckoning. Don't bother 
with it. Eat according to the rules laid down, chew 
your food well and credit the body with enough intelli- 
gence — shall I say? — to tell you how much to eat and 
what. No animal, to my knowledge, has any table of 
the caloric values of foods, nor of its own caloric 
requirements, nor needs any. Yet it must be admitted 
that animals untainted by contact with man and his 
civilized eating customs have remarkably little need 
for the services of a physician. It would seem that 
man should do at least as well. However, man has 
worked wonders in the increased production of milk 
and eggs by scientifically feeding his cattle and hens — 
even if we allow for a large measure of this increased 
productivity's being due to scientific breeding and good 
care generally. And yet, in spite of this increased 
productivity, it is very doubtful if the cows and hens 
so (scientifically) fed are as healthy and hardy as 
cattle and chickens that are allowed to follow their 
own natural inclinations in the choice of food, as well 


as the amount of it eaten. Of course, it is true that 
man lives under unnatural conditions and possibly for 
that reason can't be depended upon to have a natural 
appetite that will tell him how to eat right instinctively 
but I still maintain that if man ate only when hungry, 
chewed his food properly, and made his diet consist 
of simple foods, simply prepared, he would be able to 
maintain a very high degree of physical health without 
worrying about tables of caloric values. And anyway, 
there is considerable variance of opinion among experts 
as to how many calories a man actually needs per day, 
and still a greater variance between what he theo- 
retically needs and what he can actually live on. The 
European war has totally upset many fine theories 
regarding the least that will sustain life. The populace 
of some of the belligerent countries have been forced 
to live on amounts of food that make the theoretic 
minimum caloric allowance of some experts look like a 
lavish banquet. 

And finally, the amount of fuel required by anyone 
is dependent upon three circumstances, different for 
almost every individual, to-wit : Age, activity, and tem- 
perature of environment. Other things being equal, 
those who have not attained full growth will need most 
food, infants and those who have passed the zenith 
of life less, the least being needed by the very young 
and the very old. Likewise, other conditions being 
the same, the most active will need the most food. 
And similarly, those exposed to the most cold and the 
most inclement weather will, other factors discounted, 
require the most food. 

These three conditions, then, determine the 
amount of food needed. A normal appetite can best 
tell what to eat, when to eat, and how much to eat. Of 
course, for the sick it is all right for a doctor to 
prescribe the exact number of calories of each kind of 
food, particularly in sanitariums and hospitals, but for 
the average person a normal appetite is by far the most 


practical guide. With this one may trust the body's 
physiological elasticity to adjust itself within reason- 
able bounds, to the amount eaten. A little more than is 
actually needed may thus be taken at times, but such 
slight excesses will be safely taken care of by the 
healthy human body as they are taken care of by the 
body of any other healthy animal. However, the gen- 
eral tendency with all kinds of food should be to eat 
the minimum that will sustain a good weight and 
energy, rather than the maximum that the body can 
dispose of. If you follow this plan there will be little 
danger of intestinal putrefaction, fermentation and the 
general clogging of the body with waste that are so 
common among people who overeat. If you maintain a 
normal weight, feel well, are normally hungry when 
you should be, have no unnatural craving as to kind 
and amount of food, and do not suffer from bad breath, 
disagreeable taste in the mouth, particularly on arising, 
and have a clear skin and a clear eye ; if, in other words, 
you show none of the symptoms of a system clogged 
with food waste, you are not eating too much or too 

One more admonition and we will close this sub- 
ject: It is hardly necessary to pay any conscious 
attention to the selection of foods for protein except 
to see that you do not get too much of it, for too much 
protein can work more hardship upon the system than 
too much of any other kind of food. Besides there 
is hardly a food but what contains some protein, so 
almost any dietary would not be totally lacking in 
that food element, and most dietaries contain far too 
much. To quote Bayliss, a world renowned physiolo- 
gist, "Take care of the calories, and the protein will 
take care of itself." However, he was careful to admon- 
ish his readers that they must guard against the evils 
of a one-sided diet by eating also what we class as 
the "succulent foods." He meant not so much to 
emphasize the importance of the calories as the fact 


that one needed to pay no conscious attention to the 
selection of foods for their protein. Simply that almost 
any ordinary diet furnishing enough total fuel, with 
a liberal allowance of the succulent foods, would con- 
tain all the protein necessary for health. 

However, for the information of those who are 
interested in knowing the exact amount of protein 
required by the average person for a day's supply of 
that substance, and who would like some ready and 
convenient way of determining what amount of protein 
foods would supply sufficient protein to satisfy that 
requirement, the following is given. 

It must be evident to anyone that since protein is 
a tissue-builder, the greatest amount of it will be 
required at that time when tissue is being built most 
rapidly, namely, infancy. During no time in the life of 
a normal, healthy individual is tissue built more rapidly 
than during the first years of life. Therefore, since 
most tissue-builder is needed during infancy, the 
normal amount of protein furnished by the natural food 
of the infant human, its mother's milk, might serve 
as an index. We find that this most perfect of all 
foods for the rapidly growing infant contains from 
7V2 per cent to 8V2 or 9 per cent protein. It would 
therefore seem quite reasonable to suppose that, if 
7V2 per cent to 9 per cent of the day's food supply 
in the form of protein is sufficient to meet all demands 
at the time of the body's greatest need of protein, 
a similar percentage of the day's food supply in the 
form of protein should be sufficient to meet all sub- 
sequent normal needs of the body. Persons recovering 
from wasting diseases, such as typhoid fever, etc., can 
utilize more protein than is normally required by a 
healthy individual. 

Making allowance for the greater digestibility of 
the protein in mother's milk than the protein of other 
foods, it has been deemed advisable to increase the 


percentage allowance to meet imperfections of diges- 
tion and assimilation, and 10 per cent has been decided 
upon as a suitable percentage of the total caloric value 
of the day's rations that should be taken in the form 
of protein. That is, 10 per cent of the total food units 
in the form of protein is a sufficient percentage for a 
man either resting or sedentarily employed. But for 
the same man actively employed at muscular labor 
10 per cent would be too much. The reason for this is 
that, while a man's fuel requirements increase or 
decrease with his activity and the temperature of his 
environment, his actual need for protein does not vary. 
It is practically the same regardless of how much or 
how little work he is doing — provided only that he get 
sufficient fats and carbohydrates to make up his total 
fuel requirement, and succulent foods enough to supply 
all necessary mineral salts. Hence, while a man at 
hard muscular work needs a greater amount of food 
than the same man at rest, that increased need should 
be met, not by an increase in the protein foods, but 
by an increase in the carbohydrates and fats. 

Take, for example, a man at moderate muscular 
work w r ith a total fuel requirement of 2000 calories 
daily. Then, if 10 per cent of this be in the form of 
protein, or 200 calories of protein, since 4 calories are 
furnished by each gram of protein, such a man will 
need to consume 50 grams of pure protein. Or, 50x4- 
equals 200, equals 10 per cent of 2000. Now if this 
same man should be put at work demanding an extra 
thousand calories, or 3000 calories daily, his protein 
need would still remain 50 grams or 200 calories of 
protein per day. But 200 calories is not 10 per cent 
of 3000 calories, but only 6 2-3 per cent. Thus, while 
the actual amount of protein needed by a man is 
practically the same whether at hard work or at rest, 
the relative amount (in proportion to the total food 
requirement) is less when the man works hard than 
when he rests. Mathematically, 200 calories is less in 


proportion to 3000 calories than 200 calories in propor- 
tion to 2000 calories. 

But the fifty gram allowance means fifty grams 
of pure protein, and, since no food is pure protein, 
we must estimate the actual amount of protein from 
the percentage of protein found in the foods according 
to the figures, say in bulletin No. 28. If a food is 25 
per cent protein, then to get fifty grams of protein, one 
must eat 200 grams of that food. For instance, accord- 
ing to bulletin 28, full cream cheese is about 25 per 
cent protein; then in each gram there is % gram 
protein, and to get fifty grams of protein would require 
50x4 or 200 grams of the cheese. Since it requires 
approximately 28^4 grams to make an ounce, this would 
mean about 7 ounces of cream cheese to make up a 
complete day's supply of protein, that is, if no other 
protein were eaten. But, as said before, almost every 
food contains at least some protein, so considerably less 
than 7 ounces of cheese along with one's other foods 
would be required to furnish sufficient protein. 

By applying this method of calculation to any other 
food whose percentage of protein you know, or can 
learn from the bulletin mentioned, you can easily arrive 
at how much of the food under consideration would be 
needed, or, if you want to go to the trouble, you can 
calculate the number of grams of protein furnished by 
each article that you eat, and from that estimate the 
total daily consumption of protein. That is, you can 
do that — if you have time. Personally, in view of the 
smallness of our actual protein need, and the fact that 
almost all foods contain some protein, I would rather 
content myself with avoiding an excess of the rich 
proteins, allowing my normal appetite to choose the 
kinds and amounts of foods eaten and use my time 
in other things than rather useless calculation of total 
protein intake. 

Regarding the rule against combining milk and 
acid or sub-acid fruits, there is simply this to say in 


explanation: This may prove a bad combination, not 
because the fruit sours the milk, as some have said — 
for all milk is soured by the stomach, anyway, in the 
natural course of digestion — but because it may, in 
addition to the hydrochloric already normally present, 
cause it to sour too much, that is, form too hard a 
curd. This is particularly true in the case of one with 
"acid-stomach." When milk is taken into the stomach 
it curdles on coming into contact with the gastric juice; 
the solid part, or curd forms into a mass, while the 
watery part with its mineral salts and soluble albumin 
is eventually passed 6n into the intestines and digested 
and absorbed. The curd is attacked by the digestive 
enzyme, pepsin, whose function is to digest, at least in 
part, all proteins. But when, thru the presence of too 
much acid, as is liable to be the case when acid fruits 
are eaten at the same time with the milk, the milk 
is curdled too hard, it is likely to form a very compact 
leathery mass quite impervious to the pepsin and hence 
very hard to digest, if digested at all. Very often in 
such a case it is vomited up in tough, leathery clots. 

As for the rule against drinking milk with a meal 
containing concentrated proteins, particularly meat and 
fish, the chief reason for this is that you don't need 
more protein, even the amount contained in a glass of 
milk. Another reason is that milk, by virtue of its 
soothing effect upon the taste buds, may lead one to 
keep on eating when one has already had enough. 

Eating starches and sugars at the same meal, as 
in eating sugar on your mush, or eating a rich sweet 
dessert after a meal containing a liberal amount of 
starch, is objectionable because it is combining two 
concentrated foods at the same meal, already quite fully 

The admonition not to eat too many articles of food 
at one meal, and by the way, I consider more than five, 
or six articles of food too many for one meal — is based 
upon the facts that, first, by virtue of the pleasing 


effect that so much variety has on the taste buds and 
the appetite, as well as because one will always try 
to eat at least some of everything on the table, it leads 
to overeating. And, second, due to having so many 
things and wanting to try them all before the taste 
buds tire and the appetite palls, it leads to eating too 
fast. In fact, one of the greatest hindrances to proper 
mastication is not only having too much to eat, but 
trying to eat too many different things. Strictly limit 
yourself as to the variety and quantity of food that 
you allow yourself at each sitting and you will soon find 
that you will be masticating what you do eat much 
more thoroly. 

The rules not to eat pepper and other spices, ketch- 
up and other condiments, and sour pickles, or things 
pickled in vinegar and spices are based upon the fact 
that such things are not only indigestible, but irrita- 
ting to the alimentary canal and stimulating to the 
appetite, thus not only causing digestive disturbances, 
but leading to overindulgence in food. 

Salt, in more than very moderate quantity, is 
also irritating and tends to stimulate the appetite. 
Besides, too much is unnecessary and only makes the 
eliminative organs do that much more work in getting 
rid of it. It is one of the most frequent contributing 
causes in such nasal mucous inflamations as colds and 
catarrh. Salt, dissolved in water is fine, used as a 
nasal douche for either of these conditions, but salt 
should be used very moderately indeed internally in 
such conditions. 

To complete our knowledge of gastric digestion, 
let us learn that the stomach also secretes an enzyme 
that digests fats to a certain extent. The fat digesting 
enzyme of the stomach works principally on emulsified 
fats, such as cream, and to but a very limited degree 
on other fats. In any event, while some fat is undoubt- 
edly digested in the stomach, gastric digestion of fat 
plays no very important part in the body's economy; 


one could still live very healthily if it did not take place 
at all. Digestion of fats is carried on principally in the 
small intestines. 

But before we leave the consideration of gastric 
digestion it might be interesting to note a fact or two 
regarding the relative speed with which fats, carbo- 
hydrates, and proteins leave the stomach. When eaten 
alone, starches pass from the stomach most quickly, 
proteins second most quickly, and fats slowest of all. 
The reasons for this are: First, that since starches 
are not digested by the gastric juice and have no chem- 
ical affinity for the hydrochloric acid, they are very 
soon saturated with it or contain free hydrochloric 
acid, and, since the speed with which a food passes 
from the stomach into the intestine is largely deter- 
mined by the quickness with which it becomes satur- 
ated to excess with the hydrochloric acid, starches are 
very soon passed onward from the stomach; Second, 
proteins, on the other hand are acted upon by the 
gastric juice and do have a chemical affinity for the 
hydrochloric acid, so that some of this acid combines 
with the proteins, thus taking a longer time before 
there is any excess, or "free," hydrochloric acid present 
to cause the pyloric valve to open and allow the food 
to pass into the intestine; in other words, in protein 
digestion there must be enough acid secreted first 
to combine chemically with the protein and then some 
in addition more than will combine with the protein 
before it can pass from the stomach; Third,fat in the 
stomach has a tendency to retard the hydrochloric 
acid secretion, and, since, the fat also must be saturated 
with the acid before the pylorus will allow it to pass on, 
it remains in the stomach quite a long time, longer, 
in fact, than either starches or proteins. Mixing 
starches and proteins tends to raise the time required 
for either to pass onward ; and mixing fats with either 
greatly retards their passage, causing a greater delay 
in the case of fat and protein than in the case of fat 



and starch. This, by the way, should serve as a valu- 
able "tip" to those who suffer from too rapid stomach 
digestion, that is, a too rapid emptying of the stomach 
contents into the small intestine. For such a proced- 
ure cannot be called too rapid stomach digestion, as 
there is but very little digestion about it. Try eating 
a little fat, preferably cream, if your food tends to pass 
from the stomach too quickly. This will slow up the 
secretion of the acid and give the food a chance to 
undergo proper stomach digestion. However, too much 
fat should not be eaten, as this might lead to vomiting 
and thus defeat its own ends. And under no consider- 
ation should such a person eat fried fats; these are 
exceedingly irritating and would only aggravate the 
trouble. Bad as fried fats are even under the best 
of conditions, they are far worse in cases of hyper- 
acidity, "acid stomach." 

Sugar and sweets in general especially when taken 
to excess, will also stimulate an excessive flow of hydro- 
chloric acid. Commercial, or cane sugar when eaten 
immoderately is especially liable to do this; because 
so concentrated and carrying no bulky, indigestible 
residue and no water, it is a great irritant. To demon- 
strate its irritating qualities you have but to hold a 
piece of it in the mouth next the cheek until it dissolves 
and then note the furry, unnatural feeling it leaves on 
the mucous lining. Its effect is equally marked on 
the stomach lining, and the increase in the flow of the 
gastric juice thus stimulated corresponds with the 
increased flow of saliva produced by it in the mouth. 
Therefore, people suffering from "acid stomach" will 
do well to avoid cane sugar and other concentrated 
sweets almost entirely, eating very moderately of even 
the dried sweet fruits, or eating them in combination 
with some bulky succulent food. 


Intestinal Digestion. 

When food which has had proper mouth treatment 
and proper gastric digestion reaches the intestines, it 
is set upon by a number of different digestive agents 
and the starch digestion that was begun by the saliva 
and the fat and protein digestion left unfinished by 
the stomach are completed. The sugars, which are 
hardly affected by either the saliva or the gastric juice, 
are also digested and absorbed by the small intestines. 
In fact most of the digestion and practically all the 
absorption of food takes place here in the small 
intestines. So largely is this so that people can and 
do live without stomachs, tho of course this places an 
extra burden upon the intestines. Naturally, with 
a good mouth and stomach digestion, there is far less 
work imposed upon the intestines with the result that 
they do their work much better and probably are able 
to work for a greater number of years than when the 
stomach is missing, or mouth digestion incomplete, or 

On a previous page, in dealing with the stomach's 
method of emptying itself of food, we saw that when 
the food had been so thoroly acidfied that there was 
some free hydrochloric acid, this acid caused the pyloric 
valve to open up and allow some of the food to be liter- 
ally squirted by the force of the muscular contractions 
behind it into the first part of the small intestine. Now 
the normal state of the small intestines is alkaline, 
not acid, and when this acidfied food is ejected from 
the stomach into the intestines, the presence of the 
acid causes the pylorus to contact again thus shutting 
out any further food until that which has already 
come into the intestines has been first neutralized and 
then made alkaline. By this time more food on the 
stomach side of the pyloric valve has become acidified, 


so that the valve can again open up and some more 
food be squirted into the intestine, when the valve 
again closes in response to the acid stimulus. This 
process is repeated until the entire meal has passed 
into the intestine, tho toward the end of the process 
the valve may open up and let thru even fair sized 
pieces of food that have not been thoroly acidified. 
Especially is this likely to be true in the case of a big 
meal, and more especially still if the food has not 
been chewed properly. One of the worst features of 
this is that these lumps of food that have not been 
thoroly subjected to the germicidal and vermicidal, or 
parasite-killing, action of the hydrochloric acid may 
carry injurious parasites, either in the form of germs 
or in the form of worms or their larvae or eggs (as 
tape-worm) into the small intesines. Particularly 
might this occur with meats, and still more particu- 
larly with underdone or raw meats. 

Now it so happens that since most of the digestible 
nutrients of food are digested and absorbed in the 
small intestine, that part of the digestive tract is very 
likely to find itself without sufficient undigestible 
residue, or bulk, to carry on its normal work without 
sufficient bulk to give it the necessary muscular work 
to keep it healthy and functioning normally, and this 
is even more true of the large intestine or bowel. To 
keep the intestinal muscles healthy and performing 
their peristaltic motions (as their muscular activities 
are called), it is imperative that they have sufficient 
bulky, fibrous food to furnish enough mechanical 
irritation to the intestines to bring on muscular 
contractions and to furnish a certain amount of resist- 
ance to the muscular contractions. Hence, the vital 
importance of the succulent foods. Another thing 
about the intestines is their rapid absorption of all 
moisture from the food, this being particularly true of 
the large intestine. This has a tendency to cause the 
waste to dry hard and either accumulate in hard 


masses, or stick to the lining, either case causing 
unnecessary irritation and perhaps eventually estab- 
lishing a catarrhal or other pathological condition. It 
is almost sure to cause a very aggravated form of 
constipation or its opposite extreme, catarrhal or 
mucous diarrhea. Eating plenty of succulent foods 
will entirely obviate this, for the indigestible portion 
of the succulent food will carry enough water (which 
is not given up because the fiber is not digested) to 
maintain the proper degree of moisture, and, besides, 
such food acts as sort of an intestinal broom, sweeping 
the waste and impurities before it. Of the virtues of 
its contents of mineral salts in this connection we have 
already spoken. Another virtue of the bulky foods 
in this connection is that if fermentation sets in, it 
can go only so far before the fermentation of the fiber, 
or cellulose, produces acids that not only check the 
process of fermentation and destroy the fermentative 
bacteria, but also check the action of and destroy the 
putrefactive bacteria, which attack proteins, as well. 
This is of tremendous importance to those suffering 
from intestinal fermentation and putrefaction and 
their attendant sluggishness and arterio-sclerosis, 
respectively, as well as other diseases springing direct- 
ly from fermentation and putrefaction. And now, a 
word about these processes. 


Fermentation and Putrefaction. 

In the chapter "Regarding Acid" and "Alkaline 
Foods" a fuller discussion of the acids produced in 
abnormal digestion and assimiliation, in fermentation 
and putrefaction, was promised; we will now turn our 
attention to that matter. 

If carbohydrates be eaten to excess, or eaten with- 
out hunger, or not thoroly chewed and insalivated, or 
eaten in improper combinations, they are almost sure 
to ferment with the formation of acids (some of which 
are harmful and all of which are irritating to the lining 
of the stomach and intestines) and, according to some 
authoritives, alchohol in greater or less quantities. To 
quote Martin H. Fischer's "Physiology of Alimenta- 
tion:" "No inconsiderable amount of acid seems to be 
derived from the carbohydrates through the action 
upon them of the bacteria found in the small intestine. 
Among the acids formed in this way in small amounts 
under normal conditions, and in often enormous 
amounts in pathological states may be mentioned acetic, 
different kinds of lactic, succinic, butyric, and formic 
acids. The excessive formation of these acids is at 
once brought about when from any cause — such as 
insufficiency of the secretions of the alimentary tract, 
or insufficiency of the proper ferments (normal diges- 
tive enzymes) in these secretions, or enjoyment of 
excessive amounts of carbohydrates — these are not 
digested and absorbed in the proper way and so become 
the prey of the bacteria always present here." He 
further tells us that: "The organic acids produced 
bring about, even in small amounts, an increased peri- 
stalsis and an increased secretion of water into the 
intestine, so that if the condition is at all marked, 
frequent liquid stools, acid in reaction and ill-smelling, 
result." He also points out that while small amounts 


of these acids may be absorbed, oxidized in the tissues, 
and no evil consequence result, yet 'acute' alimentary 
fermentations (with diarrhea and the general symp- 
toms of intoxication) " are likely to follow excessive 
amounts of sugar and candy, much more likely to follow 
the excessive use of these than they are to follow the 
use of similar quantities of starch. Let me add that 
in my own experience I have found that a great many 
people eat excessively of both starches and sugars, 
and this sometimes at one and the same meal, as for 
instance when they eat mush for breakfast and load 
it down with sugar. The mush alone is a crime against 
the digestive organs and against the teeth, but adding 
sugar to it is still worse. But I shall not waste space 
condemning the addition of sugar to the mush; mush 
isn't fit to eat, anyhow, and that for two very good 
reasons. First, being starch, it needs thoro masti- 
fication and insalivation, but, being soft and pappy, too 
soft and pappy to render chewing necessary or even 
possible, it is gulped down with no chance for the saliva 
to act upon it. Second, even if it were chewed it could 
absorb but very little saliva for the simple reason 
that it is already saturated with water in which it has 
been cooked and the milk or cream that has been 
served on it, and so is not capable of absorbing a great 
deal of saliva. Don't insult your digestive organs w r ith 
mushes of any kind ! 

Fats, too, under abnormal conditions of digestion 
and assimiliation, break down into acid products, some 
of them being very much in evidence in diabetes. Fried 
fats are particularly likely to undergo a form of abnor- 
mal decomposition in the stomach and intestines with 
the formation of very irritating acids. Fats should 
be eaten by most people, except the inhabitants of 
the frigid zones, in moderation 

But if carbohydrates and fats break down, under 
abnormal conditions, into acids "all of which are more 
or less irritating and some of which may be highly 


injurious," what may be said of the products of abnor- 
mal protein decomposition ? Let us see what Professor 
P. G. Stiles, of Harvard University, has to say about 

"It may be said that protein far more than the 
non-nitrogenous foods is capable of generating toxic 
substances and so of becoming a true cause of auto- 
intoxication." Practically all nutritional authorities 
agree in this matter. And all agree that some pro- 
teins are much more liable to cause the formation of 
toxic, or poisonous, substances than are others. Meat 
and animal proteins in general, except milk, are much 
more likely to undergo putrefaction with the formation 
of poisonous acids than the vegetable proteins. 

Among the acids produced by the putrefaction of 
proteins within the intestine may be mentioned two 
with the not very pleasantly suggestive names: cada- 
verin and putrescin. Then, there is one, tyramine, 
which seems to have its specific action the raising of 
the blood-pressure, and Underhill tells us it not only 
arises from intestinal putrefaction but is also found in 
some of the rich protein foods, for example, "in such 
varieties of cheeses as Camembert, Roquefort, Emmen- 
thal and even the American cheddar cheese." It is 
also quite naturally to be expected in tainted meats, 
"high" poultry and game, and in all flesh foods which 
have already begun to decompose. And even when no 
putrefaction is present to produce the acid already 
named, there is still the production of uric acid in the 
blood. Some of this uric acid is a normal product 
and can't be escaped, but when more protein is eaten 
and absorbed than the tissues need for growth and 
repair, more uric acid is often formed than the body 
can eliminate, thus causing gout, rheumatism, etc. 
This is particularly true of meat proteins, for in addi- 
tion to the natural amount of uric acid that would 
arise from the use within the body of any kind of pro- 
tein, there is bound to be more or less of the uric acid 


that was in the tissues of the animal furnishing the 
meat at the time it was killed. And this can only 
be eliminated at a good deal of expense to the elimin- 
ating organs, particularly the kidneys. Before con- 
cluding our remarks on uric acid let us once more quote 
Professor Stiles: "Another compound which has 
attracted much attention on account of its apparent 
relation to several pathologic conditions is uric acid. 
A certain amount of this is produced during fasting and 
is not increased by the taking of many kinds of food. 
The addition to the diet of meats leads to a larger 
formation of uric acid. A maximum quantity is elab- 
orated when glandular tissues, such as liver, kidneys, 
and sweetbreads, are eaten. The chief peculiarity of 
uric acid is its slight solubility, which renders its com- 
plete excretion difficult and uncertain. Retention of 
this crystalline substance has been held accountable 
for the painful symptoms of gout and of a good deal 
that goes by the inclusive name of rheumatism." 

And in addition to all the foregoing anent protein 
overconsumption in general and meat overconsump- 
tion in particular, there sometimes results from the 
eating of large quantities of meat and sugar a type 
of fermentation in which oxalic acid is produced and 
which must therefore be highly injurious, according 
to Sherman. 

Plainly, then, the wise thing is to be moderate 
in the use of all foods, particularly the proteins, and 
more particularly still the flesh foods. 


Effect of the Emotions on Digestive Processes. 

Since diet in its larger sense means nutrition and 
since the emotions may very powerfully affect the 
nutrition, either for good or for ill, it falls within the 
proper purview of this book to discuss the emotions 
and their effects upon nutrition. In fact no thoro- 
going book on dietetics would be complete without such 
a discussion. Fortunately here again we are not left 
to guess-work and popular illusions; for this field has 
been pretty thoroly worked of recent years by men of 
science and the established truths of the matter set 
down in very readable form in the authoritative liter- 
ature of the subject. Briefly, the more important 
conclusions from our point of view follow. 

Everyone knows that the "mouth waters/' that 
is, the saliva flows, at the smell, sight, or even thot 
of good things to eat ; and investigators many years ago 
proved that "the mere sight or smell of a favorite 
food may start the pouring out of gastric juice." But 
no such response occurs when the food is not of a pleas- 
ing kind or appetizingly presented. And this fact, 
that the secretions were stimulated only by appetite, 
led Pawlow to call such secretions "psychic secretions" 
or "psychic juice." 

Similarly, Cannon tells us that, just as there are 
"psychic secretions," so also is there a "psychic tone," 
or "psychic contraction," of the muscles of the alimen- 
tary tract as a result of taking food. For he has 
demonstrated that if the "nerve supply to the stomach 
is cut immediately before an animal takes food, the 
usual contractions of the gastric wall, as seen by the 
Roentgen rays, do not occur; but if these nerves are 
cut after food has been eaten with relish, the contract- 
ions which have started continue without cessation." 


Just as appetite and the pleasure of its gratifica- 
tion induce a fine flow of digestive juices and start 
the muscular activities of the digestive organs, so 
great excitement can stop both the flow of juice and 
the muscular activities that have been started. Most 
everybody is familiar with the utter lack of saliva 
when some strong excitement affects the mind; one 
can be in the midst of a most sumptuous meal with 
the keenest of appetites and a strong flow of digestive 
juices and yet have the whole business suddenly turn 
flat upon the receipt of bad news, or the rousing of 
anger, or some kindred emotion. Even becoming deep- 
ly engrossed in some business transaction, or reading 
some disagreeable piece of news in a paper, or recall- 
ing some unpleasant memory, may stop the flow of 
saliva and other digestive juices right in the midst 
of an otherwise pleasing meal, and- cause the food eaten 
to lie in the digestive tract for hours unacted upon 
by either the juices or the muscles of digestion. To 
quote Cannon again: "The conditions favorable to 
proper digestion are wholly abolished when unpleas- 
ant feelings, such as vexation and worry and anxiety, 
or great emotions such as anger and fear, are allowed 
to prevail. ,, And again: "The influences unfavorable 
to digestion are stronger than those which promote it. 
And," he adds, "evidently, if the digestive process, 
because of emotional disturbance, is for some time 
inhibited, the swallowing of food which must lie stag- 
nant in the stomach is a most irrational procedure. 
MacBeth's advice that 'good digestion wait on appetite 
and health on both/ is now well-founded physiology." 

From this it should be plain to even the most 
casual reader that mealtime of all times should be the 
pleasantest. There should be no meal eaten without a 
cheerful and optimistic frame of mind; thots and con- 
versation should be of a pleasing turn. All care, worry, 
grief, fear, anger, and similar feelings should be 
scrupulously avoided at meal time. Even that "hurried 


feeling" should be avoided when eating. Nor, above all 
things, should a child ever be scolded during or shortly 
after a meal. 

And now a word of advice to those people whose 
brains are tyrants over the rest of their bodies, even 
their stomachs. If you have been able to banish your 
mental problems long enough to taste what you have 
eaten and to enjoy it, be wise enough to allow the diges- 
tive organs their fair share of the circulation for the 
first half hour or hour after eating so that the products 
of digestion may be absorbed and carried away from 
the congested digestive organs and to other parts of the 
body where nutriment is needed. Don't sit down imme- 
diately after a meal, especially a heavy one, and start 
using your brains just as tho they had all the blood 
in the body at their disposal ; they haven't, and heavy 
mental work after a good meal is either going to inter- 
fere with the proper digestion and absorption of the 
food, or the mental work will be of inferior quality, or 
both. Remember that an active stomach requires 
plenty of blood and nervous energy and an active brain 
requires the same, so don't interfere with the best work 
of either by trying to make both work at once. 

And another thing — quit spying on your organs. 
Eat what you know you should, chew it properly, and 
cultivate the proper frame of mind, and otherwise 
create favorable conditions for the normal action of the 
organs — and then quit suspecting them of not perform- 
ing properly. You can work upon your digestive appa- 
ratus by autosuggestion to such a degree as to cause 
indigestion and constipation. DON'T DO IT! 



Concluding Remarks on Digestive Processes. 

We have now learned considerable about the activ- 
ities of the digestive organs, about their chemistry, 
about their muscular action, and about the way they 
are affected by the foods we eat, the emotions we feel, 
and even the thots we think. And that is about as 
much as we need to learn in a work of this kind. To 
follow to further lengths the processes of digestion 
would be to burden the mind needlessly with the 
details of the physiology and chemistry of digestion 
having no relation to the practical application of the 
science of dietetics so far as the reader is concerned. 
And since our purpose was to give merely enough of 
the chemistry and physiology of digestion to show the 
reader the grounds upon which the rules are based 
and not to go into the minutiae of the digestive 
processes, we will not follow this discussion further. 
Suffice it to say that if the rules laid down in this 
volume are faithfully adhered to you will be unconcious 
of ever having a stomach or intestines, and as for con- 
stipation and other bowel troubles, they will be out of 
the question — apart from injury. Of course, there is 
nervous constipation as there is nervous diarrhea, for 
instance among students about to take an examination, 
or others facing critical situations and for the time 
being under unusually high nervous strain, even as 
there are nervous headaches which are truly nervous in 
their origin. But I am firmly convinced that even these 
may be traced in large part to a previously wrong diet 
and if people so afflicted will but follow a rational diet 
and rational methods of living in general they will be 
rarely so afflicted. Also, there is "habit constipation," 
met with in school children who are sometimes 
restrained from attending to the evacuation of their 
bowels when necessary, resulting in a sort of tolerance 


on the part of the bowel of fecal matter that should be 
ejected and ordinarily would not be tolerated. Others 
who cannot, or will not attend to the evacuation of the 
bowels when necessary and who persist in such a course 
are almost sure to establish habit constipation. 

The body can be made to establish and tolerate 
many pernicious habits among which this is one of the 
most disgusting and damaging. No matter what the 
circumstances, try always to void the fecal matter as 
soon as possible after the impulse to do so is felt. In 
case you have to wait until the impulse is lost before 
getting a chance and the impulse does not return within 
four to six hours of ordinary activity, take a short 
enema — half a pint or a pint — to start the movement. 
Under no circumstances let such a condition go over 
night; to take a short enema is the work of but a few 
minutes and the superiority of the sleep following it 
will amply repay for the time and trouble. One should 
be willing to take any amount of trouble to ward off 
this baneful complaint. 

Another factor that may cause it apart from 
wrong diet is bad posture, particularly in sitting. 
Never allow yourself to sit on the middle of your back. 
Sit erect upon the buttocks and as much of the thighs 
as can conveniently be made to support your weight 
on the object upon which you may be sitting. Neglect 
of proper posture together with lack of exercise will, 
if not actually cause constipation, at least hasten its 
development and lengthen its stay. 

While this is a book on diet, not on exercise, yet 
I mention these things so that you will be able to credit 
them with their fair share of the blame in case you 
are troubled with constipation and particularly if it 
does not seem to yield to the diet treatment as readily 
as you expect. By the way, in some instances where 
the dietetic treatment of constipation seems not to 
get the desired results the fault will be found to be 
that of not eating enough of the foods recommended 


But where enough of the laxative foods are eaten and 
properly chewed, and where this is combined with due 
attention to exercise and posture and the habit of 
attending to the bowels regularly and promptly, con- 
stipation will be cured in almost every instance. 


Air and Water — Their Place in Nutrition. 

Tho not commonly thot of as foods, these two sub- 
stances play such vital parts in nutrition that we must 
mention them in passing, if only to emphasize their 
great importance. It may seem strange that the 
virtues of anything of such vital moment to the body's 
well-being should need to be emphasized, but the fact 
remains that the vast majority do not breathe all the 
good pure air they could use, nor drink enough good 
plain water. 

AIR. To be sure, most people breathe enough air to 
support the vital processes in a way, but there is a vast 
difference between just breathing enough " to get by 
on" and breathing such an abundance as to feel con- 
stantly the healthy stimulation that comes from having 
the blood well aerated, the wastes burned up, and the 
circulation bounding thru the body. Most of the sub- 
normal temperature so frequently found in women is 
due to deficient oxidation caused by shallow breathing. 
And tho air cannot be said to be a food in the strictest 
sense of the term, because it neither builds tissues nor 
yields energy, yet one renowned nutrition authority so 
calls it. He says : "If there is a lack in this most impor- 
tant food-substance (and nothing else can take its 
place) , starvation as truly results as if other food were 
withheld, for the changes required for nutrition cannot 
take place, and furthermore incomplete decomposition 


occurs, which may result in more or less poisonous 

"Fresh air — air with its quota of oxygen — is, then, 
a prime requirement in nutrition." 

WATER. Most people drink some water daily, but 
there is a great difference between just enough to 
keep from dying of thirst and drinking enough to keep 
the body always washed thoroly clean of all water- 
soluble impurities. Certainly a big percentage of 
constipation and other disease of faulty elimination is 
due, at least in large part, to insufficient water 
drinking. And not only is it very necessary in plentiful 
quantities to proper elimination, but it helps to regulate 
many other body processes, besides forming 60 per cent 
of the body weight of the average man. 

When considerable quantities of it are taken at 
meals it tends to cause better absorption and assimi- 
lation of food. A hint to skinny persons — and fat! 
However, water must never be drunk to wash the food 
down ; first chew your food so thoroly that it passes on 
as a liquid — and then water, if you wish. 

The amount of water needed varies with different 
individuals and with the same individual at different 
times and under different circumstances, but it should 
hardly fall below eight glasses per day in normal people. 

Drinking water should be neither excessively hot 
nor ice cold, and in any event it should not be poured 
down, but drunk slowly to allow the mouth to bring 
it to nearly body temperature before it reaches the 
stomach, thus preventing shock to that organ. This 
is of considerable importance at meals and with the 
sick. Anyway, if you are drinking it for either its 
heating effects or its cooling effects, you will derive 
just as much heat or be cooled just as much by its slow 
passage thru the mouth as if gulped down to burn or 
chill the stomach. Many people, particularly those 


with "Hyperacidity," don't drink enough water. There 
is no sense in swilling down more than you need but 
the general tendency is rather in the opposite direction. 
Remember! 8 glasses daily is the minimum! 

The "Vitamins.' 

Of these recently discovered essentials of nutri- 
tion, the so-called "vitamins," but two have thus far 
been isolated — fat-soluble A and water-soluble B. Aside 
from the fact that, while but one is soluble in fat, both 
are soluble in water — hence their respective names, 
very little is yet known of their chemical nature, tho 
their functions in nutrition have been closely studied 
and many of the foods in which either or both abound 
catalogued. Some investigators think there may be 
more than two "vitamins,"tho no one has yet succeeded 
in isolating any other than those above named; 
however, no competent investigator encourages the 
belief in a multiplicity of "vitamins." And McCollum, 
perhaps the foremost investigator along these lines, 
thinks that the evidence in support of the theory of 
other "vitamins" is very meagre. The same authority 
objects on very good grounds to calling these uniden- 
tified food substances "vitamins;" in fact it was he 
who named them fat-soluble A and water-soluble B. 
Splitting the word into its two component parts, he 
says: " 'Vitamine' is objectionable, because the prefix 
vita connotes an importance of these dietary essentials 
greater than other equally indispensable constituents 
the diet. * * The ending amine has a definite and 
specific meaning. * * Any substance to be properly 
designated as amine must contain the elements of 
nitrogen. There is no evidence that either of these 
dietary essentials is an amine, and indeed fat-soluble 


A probably contains no nitrogen, for it is especially 
abundant in butter fat, and the latter is practically 
free from this element." 

In these objections to the term "vitamin/' 
McCollum seems to be drawing the support of most of 
the nutrition experts, and, whatever may be the final 
outcome of the investigations as to the number of these 
chemically unindentified dietary essentials, there is 
very little room for doubt that the term "vitamins" 
must go by the board. For the present, since their 
respective solubilities in fat and water are all that we 
know definitely of their chemical natures, it will be 
the part of discrimination to call them fat-soluble A 
and water-soluble B, respectively. Later their chem- 
ical indentities will most likely be determined, and then 
they will be properly named and classified according to 
their chemical natures. 

For practical purposes we need interest ourselves 
here only in the results of a lack of these substances 
in the dietary and with a knowledge of the foods that 
supply an abundance of either or both of them. 
McCollum tells us that both of these substances are 
necessary in the promotion of growth and the preserv- 
ation of health; without both of them the growing 
cease their growth and become diseased; the adult 
also becomes diseased from a lack of either or both. 
Beri beri, a disease the "most striking characteristic 
of which is a general paralysis," has been demon- 
strated to result from a lack of water-soluble B, while 
Xerophthalmia, an eye disease terminating in death, 
if unchecked, results from lack of fat-soluble A. And 
it seems reasonable to believe that if absence of these 
protective food bodies in marked degree will produce 
such well defined diseases as those just mentioned, 
their absence in a minor degree must certainly be 
productive of "much ill health of a less definite sort." 
So argue Fisher and Fisk in "How to Live," and, indeed, 
these two authorities take the position that McCollum's 


evidence against a third "vitamin" which acts as a 
specific protective agent against scurvy is not conclus- 
ive. Admitting the evidence which he has brot for- 
ward to show that scurvy may be due to an improper 
diet and yet not to a specific "vitamin," they say: "The 
weight of evidence, however, still favors the view that 
in scurvy a specific "vitamin" is lacking, differing from 
either the fat-soluble A or water-soluble B "vitamin." 
These two authoratives also take the position that 
cooking injures or destroys these protective food sub- 
stances. They say: "Some raw or uncooked foods, 
therefore, such as lettuce or tomatoes, celery, fruits, 
nuts, and milk, should be used in order to supply these 
minute and as yet not well-understood substances, some 
of which are apparently destroyed by the prolonged 
cooking at the temperature which is employed in order 
to sterilize canned foods or to dry vegetables. They 
are also diminished and often destroyed by the ordinary 
cooking, except in acid fruits and acid vegetables. 

"It is true that only very clean milk is entirely 
safe in an absolutely raw state, and that heat is usually 
needed to kill the germs. But this heat, even at the 
comparatively low temperature of pasteurization, is 
thot by some to destroy the vitamins that prevent 
scurvy." And then they add the sage advice : "Orange 
juice should always be given to infants over one month 
old who are fed pasteurized milk." And again : "There 
can be no question as to the need for safeguarding 
infants fed on pasteuried or boiled milk by including 
orange juice in the diet after the first month." 

Regarding the presence of fat-soluble A and water- 
soluble B in the usual foods, McCollum has demon- 
strated that the former is found in most liberal quan- 
tities in whole milk, cream, butter fat, egg yolks, and 
the glandular fats of animals — the liver, kidneys, pan- 
creas, etc., and in the leafy vegetables. The tubers 
like potatoes, and the roots like carrots, and the bulbs 
like onions, as well as the seeds, wheat, corn, rye, rice, 


peas, beans, lentils, etc., all contain in their natural 
state some of this indispensible fat-soluble substance, 
but in too small amounts to support normal growth 
and nutrition of animals unless liberally supplemented 
by the leaves of leafy vegetables or by milk and eggs 
and the glandular fats. Of these vegetable foods, the 
seeds are poorest of all in this dietary essential; the 
roots and tubers and bulbs, next; and the leafy vege- 
tables richest of all. Thus it appears that those parts 
of a plant which act in the capacity of storage organs, 
storing food for the new plant that another new season 
will bring forth, are poorest in fat-soluble A, while those 
parts of the plant which act least in the capacity of 
storage organs are richest in this substance. And in 
this respect McCollum's observation that even among 
leaves those that act least as storage organs contain 
the most fat-soluble A, is interesting. He cites the 
thick leaves of the cabbage which act somewhat in the 
capacity of storage organs in contrast with some of 
the thinner leaved plants, such as spinach, the leaves 
of which do not act in a storage capacity. He points 
out that this is due to the fact that the first function 
of the leaf is to act as the laboratory of the rest of 
the plant, using the chemical rays of the sunlight to 
enable it to combine the elements of its surrounding 
air and soil into carbohydrate, protein and fat, and that 
when it is fulfilling this one function and not required 
to act as a storage organ also it contains none but active 
living cells. And these cells are the part of the plant 
containing by far the bulk of fat-soluble A. Hence, 
the vital importance of supplementing the usual diet 
of seeds, tubers and roots with a liberal allowance of 
the leafy tops of vegetables, or else milk and eggs. An 
interesting fact in this connection is that while fat- 
soluble A is found so plentifully in butter fat and egg 
yolk fats, it has not yet been found in appreciable 
quantities in any vegetable fat, such as olive oil, cotton 
seed oil, palm oil, peanut oil, etc., nor do ordinary body 


fats of animals, such as lard or suet, contain it in quan- 
tities worthy of mention, it being found in appreciable 
amounts in the animal body only in the fats of the 
glandular organs already referred to. The yolk of 
the egg 9 being in reality the future young, and milk, 
being the natural food of the young, Nature has seen 
to it that these two foods are amply supplied with this 
very important fat-soluble substance. And because 
milk and eggs and leafy-topped vegetables are so abun- 
dantly supplied with this dietary essential, McCollum 
has termed them the "protective foods." The eating 
of one or more of the above mentioned "protective 
foods" is an absolute prerequisite of good health. And 
the wise plan would be to make sure of a 
plentiful supply of fat-soluble A by supplementing 
the usual diet by a liberal amount of leafy vegetables 
and milk, or leafy vegetables and eggs, or eggs and 
milk. Of these three, the first, leafy vegetables and 
milk, is in the author's opinion the best. 

As to water-soluble B, it appears that if the diet 
is so arranged as to make sure of a sufficiency of fat- 
soluble A, there is likely to be no lack of the former. 
To quote McCollum once more: "If the diet is so 
planned as to furnish a suitable quota of milk and of 
cereals and other foods which are not so treated as to 
destroy the water-soluble B, there is no danger of a 
shortage of this substance in the diet." But foods can 
be so treated as to destroy this substance, and aside 
from prolonged cooking, nothing seems more destruct- 
ive of this substance than the use of alkalis, such as 
baking soda or baking powder, in cooking. And while 
the housewife may be justified in the use of baking 
soda and baking powder in some of her cooking, she 
had best limit it, using it only where absolutely neces- 
sary. Many cooks have a tendency to use entirely too 
much of these compounds. 

By way of conclusion, the present author knows 
of no better general summary of the entire question 


of adequate nutrition than the following, taken from 
McCollum's book, 'The Newer Knowledge of Nutri- 
tion:" "Liberal consumption of all of the essential 
constituents of a normal diet, prompt digestion and 
absorption and prompt evacuation of the undigested 
residue from the intestines before extensive absorption 
of products of bacterial decomposition of proteins can 
take place, are the optimum conditions for the mainte- 
nance of vigor and the characteristics of youth. Such a 
dietary regime can be attained only by supplementing 
the seed products, tubers, roots, and meat, with the 
protective foods, milk and the leafy vegetables." 




Title 1 

Copyright Notice 2 

Foreword 3 

Introductory 5 

Composition of the Body and of Foods 6 

Rules of Eating 15 

Illustrative Menus 24 


Diet for Children 29 


Preparation of Foods for the Table 32 


Regarding "Acid" and "Alkaline" Foods 46 


Iron, Lime, Phosphorus and Sulphur 50 


The Why of the Rules 63 


Intestinal Digestion 83 


Fermentation and Putrefaction 86 


Effects of the Emotions on Digestive Processes 90 


Concluding Remarks on Digestive Processes 93 

Air and Water — Their Place in Nutrition 95 

The "Vitamins" 97 

University of 





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